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Solutions - ions and hydroxide ions Acid molecules that...

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Solutions : homogeneous mixtures (components may be solids, liquids or gases)… examples: salt + water (saline water), sugar + water - the component in greater concentration is the solvent; the component(s) in greater concentration is/are the solute(s) - concentration can be expressed in % solute (70% NaCl) or molarity (moles/Liter) (0.5 M NaCl) o 1 mole of solute = Avogadro’s number of solute particles (6.02 x 10 23 ) Colloids (emulsions): heterogeneous mixtures, often translucent - large solute molecules, but remain dispersed - colloids scatter light (separate wavelengths) - capable of sol-gel transformations (reversible change from fluid to gel state) - examples: Jell-O, cytosol (material inside cell) Suspensions : heterogeneous mixtures with large solutes that tend to settle out (example: sand + water) pH scale (power of hydrogen): indicates acidity or basicity of solution - ranges from 0 (strong acid) to 14 (strong base); pH=7 is neutral - water ionizes to release hydrogen
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Unformatted text preview: ions and hydroxide ions Acid : molecules that release hydrogen ions (H + ) when dissolved in water- acids are hydrogen ion (proton) donors Base : molecules that release hydroxide (OH-) ions , or increase the number of hydroxide ions available, when dissolved in water- bases are hydrogen ion (proton) acceptors Salt : ionically-bonded molecule that dissociates into cations & anions in solution- in the body, salts are electrolytes that conduct electricity (important for nerve & muscle cells) & provide essential chemical elements in body fluids (blood, lymph & interstitial fluids) Buffers : maintain stable pH of solution (resist changes in pH)- Buffers can take up excess hydrogen or hydroxide ions- Buffers have acidic and basic components- Blood uses carbonic acid (acidic) – bicarbonate ion (basic) buffer system- normal pH of blood is between 7.35 & 7.45- Bicarbonate ions take up added hydrogen ions, and carbonic acid takes up excess hydroxide ions...
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