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The Chemistry of Lif2 - fully understood Movement Through...

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The Chemistry of Life Lysosomes Membrane-bound sacs containing enzymes are called lysosomes. Within the cell the lysosomes break down phagocytized material. Mitochondria Mitochondria are the major sites of ATP production, which cells use as an energy source. Mitochondria carry out aerobic respiration (requires oxygen). Cytoskeleton The cytoskeleton supports the cytoplasm and organelles and is involved with cell movements. The cytoskeleton is composed of microtubules, microfilaments, and intermediate filaments. Cilia, Flagella, and Microvilli Cilia move substances over the surface of cells. Flagella are much longer than cilia and propel sperm cells. Microvilli increase the surface area of cells and aid in absorption. Whole-Cell Activity The interactions between organelles must be considered for cell function to be
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Unformatted text preview: fully understood. Movement Through the Cell Membrane • Lipid-soluble molecules pass through the cell membrane readily by dissolving in the lipid portion of the membrane. • Small molecules can pass through membrane channels. • Large molecules that are not lipid-soluble can be transported through the membrane by carrier molecules. • Large molecules that are not lipid-soluble, particles, and cells can be transported across the membrane by vesicles. Diffusion • Diffusion is the movement of a solute from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration within a solvent. At equilibrium, there is a uniform distribution of molecules. • For a given distance, a concentration gradient is equal to the higher concentration minus the lower concentration of a solute in a solution....
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