The Chemistry of Lif4

The Chemistry of Lif4 - Acids and Bases Acids are proton...

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The Chemistry of Life Energy and Chemical Reactions Energy is the capacity to do work. Potential energy is stored energy that could do work, and kinetic energy does work by causing the movement of an object. Energy can be neither created or destroyed, but one type of energy can be changed into another. Energy exists in chemical bonds as potential energy. Energy is released in chemical reactions when the products contain less potential energy than the reactants. The energy can be lost as heat, be used to synthesize molecules, or can do work. Energy is absorbed in reactions when the products contain more potential energy than the reactants. Rate of Chemical Reactions The rate of chemical reactions increases when the concentration of the reactants increases, temperature increases, or a catalyst is present. A catalyst (enzyme) increases the rate of chemical reactions without being altered permanently.
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Unformatted text preview: Acids and Bases Acids are proton (hydrogen ion) donors, and bases are proton acceptors. The pH Scale A neutral solution has an equal number of hydrogen ions and hydroxide ions and a pH of 7.0. An acidic solution has more hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions and a pH of less than 7.0. A basic solution has fewer hydrogen ions than hydroxide ions and a pH greater than 7.0. Salts A salt is formed when an acid reacts with a base. Buffers Buffers are chemicals that resist changes in pH when acids or bases are added. Inorganic Chemistry Inorganic chemistry is mostly concerned with noncarbon-containing substances, but does include such carbon-containing substances as carbon dioxide and carbon monoxide. Oxygen and Carbon Dioxide Oxygen is involved with the extraction of energy from food molecules. Carbon dioxide is a by-product of the breakdown of food molecules....
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