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The Chemistry of Life - Anaphase-Chromatids separate at the...

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The Chemistry of Life Protein Synthesis Cell activity is regulated by enzymes (proteins), and DNA controls enzyme production. Transcription During transcription, the sequence of nucleotides in DNA (a gene) determines the sequence of nucleotides in mRNA; the mRNA moves through the nuclear pores to ribosomes. Translation During translation the sequence of codons in mRNA is used at ribosomes to produce proteins. Anticodons of tRNA bind to the codons of mRNA, and the amino acids carried by tRNA are joined to form a protein. Cell Division Mitosis o Cell division that occurs by mitosis produces new cells for growth and tissue repair. o DNA replicates during interphase, the time between cell division. o Mitosis is divided into four stages: Prophase-Each chromosome consists of two chromatids joined at the centromere. Metaphase-Chromosomes align at the center of the cell.
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Unformatted text preview: Anaphase-Chromatids separate at the centromere and migrate to opposite poles. Telophase-The two new nuclei assume their normal structure, and cell division is completed, producing two new daughter cells. Meiosis o Meiosis results in the formation of gametes (sperm cells or oocytes). Gametes have half the number (haploid number) of chromosomes that other (diploid) body cells do. o There are two cell divisions in meiosis. Each division has four stages similar to those in mitosis. o During meiosis the processes of crossing over within tetrads and random distribution of chromosomes increase genetic variability. Differentiation • Differentiation, the process by which cells develop specialized structures and functions, results from the selective activation and inactivation of DNA....
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