The Digestive Syste4 - receptor-mediated and end product...

Info icon This preview shows page 1. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
The Digestive System Vitamins Most vitamins are not produced by the body and must be obtained in the diet. Some vitamins can be formed from provitamins. Vitamins are important in energy production, nucleic acid synthesis, growth, and blood clotting. Vitamins are classified as either fat-soluble or water-soluble. Minerals Minerals are necessary for normal metabolism and add mechanical strength to bones. Metabolism Metabolism consists of anabolism and catabolism. Anabolism is the synthesis of molecules and requires energy. Catabolism is the breaking down of molecules and gives off energy. The energy in carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins is used to produce ATP. Regulation of Metabolism Biochemical pathways are a series of chemical reactions, some of which release energy that can be used to synthesize ATP. Each step in a biochemical pathways requires enzymes. Enzyme synthesis is determined by DNA. Enzyme activity is modified by
Image of page 1
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: receptor-mediated and end product processes. Carbohydrate Metabolism • Glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose to two pyruvic acid molecules. Two ATP molecules are also produced. • Anaerobic respiration is the breakdown of glucose in the absence of oxygen to two lactic acid molecules and two ATP molecules. • Lactic acid can be converted to glucose using aerobically produced ATP; the necessary oxygen is the oxygen debt. • Aerobic respiration is the breakdown of glucose in the presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and 38 molecules of ATP. o The first phase of aerobic metabolism is glycolysis. o The second phase of aerobic metabolism is the conversion of pyruvic acid to acetyl-CoA. o The third phase of aerobic metabolism is the citric acid cycle. o The fourth phase is the electron-transport chain, which uses carrier molecules such as NADH to synthesis ATP....
View Full Document

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern