The Digestive Syste4

The Digestive Syste4 - receptor-mediated and end product...

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The Digestive System Vitamins Most vitamins are not produced by the body and must be obtained in the diet. Some vitamins can be formed from provitamins. Vitamins are important in energy production, nucleic acid synthesis, growth, and blood clotting. Vitamins are classified as either fat-soluble or water-soluble. Minerals Minerals are necessary for normal metabolism and add mechanical strength to bones. Metabolism Metabolism consists of anabolism and catabolism. Anabolism is the synthesis of molecules and requires energy. Catabolism is the breaking down of molecules and gives off energy. The energy in carbohydrates, lipids, and proteins is used to produce ATP. Regulation of Metabolism Biochemical pathways are a series of chemical reactions, some of which release energy that can be used to synthesize ATP. Each step in a biochemical pathways requires enzymes. Enzyme synthesis is determined by DNA. Enzyme activity is modified by
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Unformatted text preview: receptor-mediated and end product processes. Carbohydrate Metabolism • Glycolysis is the breakdown of glucose to two pyruvic acid molecules. Two ATP molecules are also produced. • Anaerobic respiration is the breakdown of glucose in the absence of oxygen to two lactic acid molecules and two ATP molecules. • Lactic acid can be converted to glucose using aerobically produced ATP; the necessary oxygen is the oxygen debt. • Aerobic respiration is the breakdown of glucose in the presence of oxygen to produce carbon dioxide, water, and 38 molecules of ATP. o The first phase of aerobic metabolism is glycolysis. o The second phase of aerobic metabolism is the conversion of pyruvic acid to acetyl-CoA. o The third phase of aerobic metabolism is the citric acid cycle. o The fourth phase is the electron-transport chain, which uses carrier molecules such as NADH to synthesis ATP....
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This note was uploaded on 12/04/2011 for the course ANTHRO 2000 taught by Professor Monicaoyola during the Fall '10 term at Broward College.

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