The Digestive Syste9

The Digestive Syste9 - Pharynx The pharynx consists of the...

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The Digestive System Functions of the Digestive System The functions of the digestive system are to take in food, break down the food, absorb the digested molecules, and, thus, provide nutrients to the body. Anatomy and Histology of the Digestive System The GI tract is composed of four tunics: mucosa, submucosa, muscularis, and serosa or adventitia. Oral Cavity The lips and cheeks are involved in mastication and speech. The tongue is involved in speech, taste, mastication, and swallowing. There are 32 permanent teeth, including incisors, canines, premolars, and molars. Each tooth consists of a crown, neck, and root. The roof of the oral cavity is divided into the hard and soft palates. Salivary glands produce serous and mucous secretions. The three pairs of large salivary glands are the parotid, submandibular, and sublingual glands.
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Unformatted text preview: Pharynx The pharynx consists of the nasopharynx, oropharynx, and laryngopharynx. Esophagus The esophagus connects the pharynx to the stomach. The upper and lower esophageal sphincters regulate movement. Stomach The stomach has a cardiac opening from the esophagus and a pyloric opening into the duodenum. The wall of the stomach consists of three muscle layers: longitudinal, circular, and oblique. Gastric glands produce mucus, hydrochloric acid, pepsin, gastrin, and intrinsic factor. Small Intestine The small intestine is divided into the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Circular folds, villi, and microvilli greatly increase the surface area of the intestinal lining. Goblet cells and duodenal glands produce mucus....
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