Unformatted text preview: The Parathyroid Glands • The parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone, which helps regulate blood levels of calcium. Active vitamin D also helps regulate blood levels of calcium. The Adrenal Glands • The adrenal medulla secretes primarily epinephrine and some norepinephrine. These hormones help prepare the body for physical activity. • The adrenal cortex secretes three classes of hormones. • Glucocorticoids (cortisol) reduce inflammation and break down fat and protein, making them available as energy sources to other tissues. • Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone) help regulate sodium and potassium levels and water volume in the body. Renin, secreted by the kidneys, helps regulate blood pressure by increasing angiotensin II and aldosterone production. These hormones cause blood vessels to constrict and enhance sodium and water retention by the kidney. • Adrenal androgens increase female sexual drive; normally adrenal androgens have little effect in males....
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- Fall '10