The Endocrine Syste1

The Endocrine Syste1 - The Parathyroid Glands • The...

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The Endocrine System The Pituitary and Hypothalamus The pituitary is connected to the hypothalamus of the brain by the infundibulum. It is divided into the anterior and posterior pituitary. Secretions from the anterior pituitary are controlled by hypothalamic-releasing hormones that pass through the hypothalamic-pituitary portal system from the hypothalamus. Hormones secreted from the posterior pituitary are controlled by nervous impulses that pass from the hypothalamus through the infundibulum. The hormones released from the anterior pituitary are growth hormone (GH), thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH), adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH), luteinizing hormone (LH), follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), prolactin, and melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH). Hormones released from the posterior pituitary include antidiuretic hormone (ADH) and oxytocin. The Thyroid Gland The thyroid gland secretes thyroid hormones, which control the metabolic rate of tissues, and calcitonin, which helps regulate blood calcium levels.
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Unformatted text preview: The Parathyroid Glands • The parathyroid glands secrete parathyroid hormone, which helps regulate blood levels of calcium. Active vitamin D also helps regulate blood levels of calcium. The Adrenal Glands • The adrenal medulla secretes primarily epinephrine and some norepinephrine. These hormones help prepare the body for physical activity. • The adrenal cortex secretes three classes of hormones. • Glucocorticoids (cortisol) reduce inflammation and break down fat and protein, making them available as energy sources to other tissues. • Mineralocorticoids (aldosterone) help regulate sodium and potassium levels and water volume in the body. Renin, secreted by the kidneys, helps regulate blood pressure by increasing angiotensin II and aldosterone production. These hormones cause blood vessels to constrict and enhance sodium and water retention by the kidney. • Adrenal androgens increase female sexual drive; normally adrenal androgens have little effect in males....
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