The Endocrine Syste3

The Endocrine Syste3 - • Intracellular chemical signals...

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The Endocrine System The nervous and endocrine systems are the two major regulatory systems in the body. The nervous system controls structures by sending action potentials along axons, which release chemicals signals at their ends near the cells they control, whereas the endocrine system releases chemicals into the circulatory system, which carries the chemicals to the cells they control. The endocrine system has a more general effect, acts more slowly, and has a longer lasting effect than the nervous system. Functions of the Endocrine System The main functions of the endocrine system include regulation of Water balance; uterine contractions during parturition: milk release from the breasts; metabolism; tissue maturation; sodium, potassium, and calcium ion concentration of blood; heart rate; blood pressure; preparation for physical activity; blood glucose concentration; immune cell production; and reproductive functions in males and females. Chemical Signals Chemical signals bind to receptor sites on receptor molecules.
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Unformatted text preview: • Intracellular chemical signals are produced in one part of a cell and travel to another part of the same cell and bind to receptors. • Intercellular chemical signals are released from one cell, are carried in the intercellular fluid, and bind to receptors in other cells. • Intercellular chemical signals can be classified as autocrine, paracrine, hormone, neurohormone, neuromodulator, neurotransmitter, or pheromone chemical signals. Receptors • Chemical signals bind to receptor sites on receptor molecules to produce a response. • Intracellular receptors are located in the cytoplasm or nuclei and can regulate enzyme activity or regulate the synthesis of specific messenger RNA. • Membrane-bound receptors can produce a response by directly opening ion channels, activating G proteins, or activating enzymes that synthesize intracellular chemical signals, or by phosphorylating proteins inside of the cell....
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