The Haldane effect

The Haldane effect - o Po 2 : very low levels (<...

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The Haldane effect : the lower the Po 2 and hemoglobin saturation with oxygen, the more carbon dioxide can be carried in blood - reduced hemoglobin (deoxyhemoglobin) more able to form carbaminohemoglobin Control of respiration Neural mechanisms : medullary & pons respiratory centers - medullary centers generate the basic respiratory rhythm (may involve pacemaker neurons in inspiratory center), while pons centers modify activity of medullary neurons Factors influencing the rate & depth of breathing - pulmonary irritant reflexes passages - inflation reflex : stretch receptors in lungs inhibit inspiration & begin expiration - higher brain centers : hypothalamic & cortical controls - chemical factors: chemoreceptors o Pco 2 : increase can lead to hyperventilation; decrease can lead to hypoventilation
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Unformatted text preview: o Po 2 : very low levels (< 60 mm Hg) require increased ventilation Kevin Kelleher, MTC Biology 211 Study Notes Exam 2 21 o pH : falling arterial pH leads to increased ventilation (as with increased Pco 2 ) Respiratory adjustments during exercise & at high altitudes- Exercise : during exercise, breathing becomes deeper & more vigorous without significantly changing rate ( hyperpnea ) o results in increased ventilation o caused by psychic factors (anticipation), motor activation of skeletal muscles with respiratory centers, & excitation of proprioceptors- High Altitude effects: acclimatization (adaptation to decreased oxygen levels) involves increased ventilation as respiratory volumes are increased o Hemoglobin saturation with oxygen is much less than at sea level, but still sufficient for adequate oxygen delivery to tissues PAGE7...
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This note was uploaded on 12/04/2011 for the course ANTHRO 2000 taught by Professor Monicaoyola during the Fall '10 term at Broward College.

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The Haldane effect - o Po 2 : very low levels (<...

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