The Integumentary Syste2

The Integumentary Syste2 - keratin The most superficial...

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The Integumentary System he integumentary system consists of the skin, hair, glands, and nails. Functions of the Integumentary System The integumentary system separates and protects us from the external environment. Other functions include sensation, vitamin D production, temperature regulation, and excretion of small amounts of waste products. Hypodermis The hypodermis is loose connective tissue that attaches the skin to underlying tissues. About half of the body's fat is stored in the hypodermis. Skin Dermis o The dermis is dense connective tissue. o Collagen and elastic fibers provide structural strength, and the blood vessels of the papillae supply the epidermis with nutrients. Epidermis o The epidermis is stratified squamous epithelium divided into strata. o Cells are produced in the stratum basale. o The stratum corneum is many layers of dead, squamous cells containing
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Unformatted text preview: keratin. The most superficial layers are sloughed. o Keratinization is the transformation of stratum basale cells into stratum corneum cells. o Structural strength results from keratin inside the cells and from desmosomes, which hold the cells together. o Permeability characteristics result from lipids surrounding the cells. Skin Color o Melanocytes produce melanin, which is responsible for different racial skin colors. Melanin production is determined genetically but can be modified by hormones and ultraviolet light (tanning). o Carotene, a plant pigment ingested as a source of vitamin A, can cause the skin to appear yellowish. o Scattering of light by collagen produces a bluish color. o Increased blood flow produces a red skin color, whereas a decreased blood flow causes a pale skin color. Decreased blood oxygen results in the blue color of cyanosis....
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