The Lymphatic System and Immunity

The Lymphatic System and Immunity - transplants Cytotoxic T...

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The Lymphatic System and Immunity Antibody-Mediated Immunity o Antibodies are proteins. The variable region combines with antigens and is responsible for antibody specificity. The constant region activates complement or attaches the antibody to cells. The five classes of antibodies are IgG, IgM, IgA, IgE, and IgD. o Antibodies directly inactivate antigens or cause them to clump together. Antibodies indirectly destroy antigens by promoting phagocytosis and inflammation. o The primary response results from the first exposure to an antigen. B cells form plasma cells, which produce antibodies, and memory B cells. o The secondary (memory) response results from exposure to an antigen after a primary response. Memory B cells quickly form plasma cells and new memory B cells. Cell-Mediated Immunity o Exposure to an antigen activates cytotoxic T cells and produces memory T cells. o Cytotoxic T cells lyse virus-infected cells, tumor cells, and tissue
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Unformatted text preview: transplants. Cytotoxic T cells produce cytokines, which promote inflammation and phagocytosis. Immune Interactions Innate immunity, antibody-mediated immunity, and cell-mediated immunity can function together to eliminate an antigen. Immunotherapy Immunotherapy stimulates or inhibits the immune system to treat diseases. Acquired Immunity • Active natural immunity results from everyday exposure to an antigen against which the person's own immune system mounts a response. • Active artificial immunity results from deliberate exposure to an antigen (vaccine) to which the person's own immune system responds. • Passive natural immunity is the transfer of antibodies from a mother to her fetus during gestation or baby during breastfeeding. • Passive artificial immunity is the transfer of antibodies from an animal or another person to a person requiring immunity. •...
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