Thorax - • The head is the end of the rib that...

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Thorax The thoracic cage includes the thoracic  vertebrae, sternum, ribs, and costal  cartilage (see Figure 1). The sternum  (breastbone) consists of three fused  bones: the manubrium, body, and  xiphoid process. There are 12 pairs of  ribs. All ribs articulate posteriorly with a  corresponding thoracic vertebra. At  their anterior ends, they differ as to how  they attach, as follows: Seven pairs of true ribs  (vertebrosternal ribs) attach  directly to the sternum with 
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hyaline cartilage called costal  cartilage. Three pairs of false ribs  (vertebrochondral ribs) do not  attach to the sternum. Rather,  they connect (with costal  cartilage) to the rib directly above  them. Two pairs of false ribs (floating  ribs or vertebral ribs) do not  attach to anything at their  anterior ends. Figure 1. The thoracic cage.
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Here are important features of a rib:
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Unformatted text preview: • The head is the end of the rib that articulates with the vertebral column. • The superior and inferior facets on the head articulate with the facets of the thoracic vertebrae. • The neck, just beyond the head, bears a tubercle (rounded process) that articulates with the facet of the vertebral transverse process. Part of the tubercle also presents a place of attachment for ligaments. • The costal angle designates the sharp turn of the rib. • The costal groove, a passageway on the inside of the bending rib, provides for blood vessels and intercostal nerves. • The body (shaft) is the major part of the rib—that part beyond the costal angle. • Intercostal spaces, the areas between the ribs, are occupied by the intercostal muscles....
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Thorax - • The head is the end of the rib that...

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