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Urinary System and Fluid Balance

Urinary System and Fluid Balance - o Each renal pyramid has...

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Urinary System and Fluid Balance The urinary system consists of the kidneys, ureters, urinary bladder, and urethra. The urinary system eliminates wastes, controls blood volume, regulates blood ion concentration and pH, and regulates red blood cell production. Functions of the Urinary System The kidneys excrete waste products. The kidneys control blood volume by regulating the volume of urine produced. The kidneys help regulate the concentration of major ions in the body fluids. The kidneys help regulate pH of the body fluids. The kidneys regulate the concentration of erythrocytes in the blood. The kidneys participate, with the skin and liver, in vitamin D synthesis. Urinary System Kidneys o Each kidney is behind the peritoneum and surrounded by a renal capsule and a renal fat pad. o The kidney is divided into an outer cortex and an inner medulla.
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Unformatted text preview: o Each renal pyramid has a base that extends into the cortex; the tip extends into the medulla and is surrounded by a calyx. o Calyces are extensions of the renal pelvis, which is the expanded end of the ureter within the renal sinus. o The functional unit of the kidney is the nephron. The parts of a nephron are the renal corpuscle, the proximal tubule, the loop of Henle, and the distal tubule. o The filtration membrane is formed by the glomerular capillaries, the basement membrane, and the podocytes of Bowman's capsule. Arteries and Veins o Renal arteries give rise to branches that lead to afferent arterioles. o Afferent arterioles supply the glomeruli. o Efferent arterioles carry blood from the glomeruli to the peritubular capillaries. o Blood from the peritubular capillaries flows to the renal veins....
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