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Water Balance - Water Balance water intake 60 fluids 30...

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Water Balance : - water intake : 60% fluids; 30% water in foods; 10% from metabolism (metabolic water or water of oxidation) - water output : 60% excreted in urine; 28% vaporizes out of lungs of is lost by diffusion through skin (insensible water loss); 8% lost through perspiration & 4% in fecal waste - Regulation of water intake: the thirst mechanism o hypothalamic thirst center stimulated when osmoreceptors lose water by osmosis to ECF; results in sensation of thirst - Regulation of water output : o insensible water losses from skin & lungs; sensible water loss through urine output tied to sodium & water balance - Disorders of water balance : o Dehydration : water loss exceeds water intake; water is lost from ECF & water moves from cells to ECF to equalize osmolality o Hypotonic hydration (water intoxication) : extreme intake of water or renal insufficiency lead to diluted ECF; water flows into cells by osmosis o Edema : atypical accumulation of water in interstitial space, leading to tissue swelling
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