Lecture_1_History_2011

Lecture_1_History_2011 - Introduction to Biophysics Lecture...

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Introduction to Biophysics Lecture 1 History of Biophysics Careers in Biophysics
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What is Biophysics? It is neither “physics for biologists”, nor “physical methods applied to biology” It is a modern, interdisciplinary field of science leading to new approaches for our understanding of biological functions. Paradigm: “Biological system is not simply the sum of its molecular components but is rather their functional integration” –example biological membrane. Scale from organism to single molecule Time scales from years to femtoseconds (10 -15 ), 1/1000 ps Mathematics +Physics +Biology + Chemistry
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Biological Membrane Highly organized anisotropic structure Relationship structure–function are central to biophysics
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Examples of problems to solve: How brain processes and stores information? How the heart pumps blood? How muscles contract? How plants use light for grow in photosynthesis? How genes are switched on and off?
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Divisions of Biophysics : Molecular biophysics Biomechanics Membrane Biophysics Bio-electrochemistry Environmental Biophysics Theoretical Biophysics Job Market : Universities Industry Medical Centers Research Institutes Government Impact on biotechnology and medicine
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First Biophysicists Heraclitus 5 th century B.C. – earliest mechanistic theories of life processes, insight into dynamic. “Change is central to Universe”. “Logos is the fundamental order of all “on Nature” changes of objects with the flow of time”
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Epicurus 3 rd century B.C. – atom. Living organisms follow the same laws as non-living objects. Galen 2th century AD – physician, most accomplished medical researcher of the Roman period. His theories dominated Western medicine for over millennium. Leonardo da Vinci 16 th century – mechanical principles of bird flight (to use for engineering design) - bionics First Biophysicists
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Giovanni Alfonso Borelli 17th century- related animals to machines and utilized mathematics to prove his theories. De Motu Animalium – comprehensive biomechanical description of limb’s mobility, bird’s flight, swimming movement, heart function. Borelli farther of biomechanics
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Luigi Galvani / Alessandro Volta Bio-electrochemistry 18 th (1771) muscle and nerve cells produce electricity
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Electric circuit = two different metals + nerve of the frog’s leg Nerve of the frog's leg = electrolyte and sensor Metals = electrodes If close the circuit dead leg will twitch. Volta created first battery by substituting frog leg with electrolyte. From frog leg to first battery. Luigi Galvani / Alessandro Volta
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(a) Initial charge transfer. (b) Thermal equilibrium. Diagrams show corresponding electron energy distributions. E Fermi = Fermi level; V contact = contact potential difference Development of a contact potential as two conductive materials are brought into thermal equilibrium
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First law of thermodynamic Optical aspects of the human eye Theory of hearing Brown’s motion Osmotic process Nonequilibrium thermodynamics Discovery of X-rays – emergence of radiation biophysics History of discoveries in Biophysics:
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