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Lecture_2_molecular_forces_2011

Lecture_2_molecular_forces_2011 - Introduction to...

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Introduction to Biophysics Lecture 2 Introductory thermodynamics Molecular forces in Biological Structures
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The second law of thermodynamics is an expression of the universal principle of increasing entropy, stating that the entropy of an isolated system which is not in equilibrium will tend to increase over time, approaching a maximum value at equilibrium.
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1854 Rudolf Clausius – introduced entropy as a parameter of phenomenological thermodynamics
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The Concept of Free Energy : - “useful” energy of a system - the part of total energy that can be harnessed to do “useful” work F=E-TS (total energy – randomness (or disorder)) If F<0 – process is spontaneous, T=constant F can decrease if E decreases (exmp. - heat loss) S increases (disorder tents to increase)
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Biological molecules are polymers : The free energy associated with a covalent bond is ~ 100 – 150 k B T . These bonds are therefore not disrupted by thermal fluctuations. lipids
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The Schrödinger equation is the theoretical basis for calculation of the wave functions of electrons and the probability of their presence at a particular point in space. Quantum numbers: n, l, m l , m s Pauli exclusion principle - It is impossible for two electrons with identical quantum numbers to occur in the same atom.
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Atomic orbitals - illustration of the statistical nature of the electro distribution
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How chemical bond is made?
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