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# SEM - Structural Equation Modeling Intro to SEM Other Names...

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Structural Equation Modeling Intro to SEM

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Other Names SEM – Structural Equation Modeling CSA – Covariance Structure Analysis Causal Models Simultaneous Equation Modeling Path Analysis (with Latent Variables) Confirmatory Factor Analysis
SEM in a nutshell Combination of factor analysis and regression Continuous and discrete predictors and outcomes Relationships among measured or latent variables Direct link between Path Diagrams and equations and fit statistics Models contain both measurement and path models

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An Example of a Path Diagram Depression BDI CES-D ZDRS Negative Parental Influence Dep parent Insecure Attachment Neglect Gender E E E D E E E
Vocabulary Measured variable Observed variables, indicators or manifest variables in an SEM design Predictors and outcomes in path analysis Squares in the diagram Latent Variable Un-observable variable in the model, factor, construct Construct driving measured variables in the measurement model Circles in the diagram

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More Vocabulary Error or E Variance left over after prediction of a measured variable Disturbance or D Variance left over after prediction of a factor Exogenous Variable Variable that predicts other variables Endogenous Variables A variable that is predicted by another variable A predicted variable is endogenous even if it in turn predicts another variable
Still more Vocabulary Measurement Model The part of the model that relates indicators to latent factors The measurement model is the factor analytic part of SEM Path model This is the part of the model that relates variable or factors to one another (prediction) If no factors are in the model then only path model exists between indicators

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Even more Vocabulary Direct Effect Regression coefficients of direct prediction Indirect Effect Mediating effect of x1 on y through x2 Confirmatory Factor Analysis Covariance Structure Relationships based on variance and covariance Mean Structure Includes means (intercepts) into the model
Back to Path Diagrams Single-headed arrow This is prediction Regression Coefficient or factor loading Double headed arrow This is correlation Missing Paths Hypothesized absence of relationship Can also set path to zero

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The Previous Example Depression BDI CES-D ZDRS Negative Parental Influence Dep parent Insecure Attachment Neglect Gender E E E D E E E
Types of SEM questions Does the model produce an estimated population covariance matrix that “fits” the sample data? SEM calculates many indices of fit; close fit, absolute fit, etc.

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SEM - Structural Equation Modeling Intro to SEM Other Names...

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