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HBSE macro power point

HBSE macro power point - Human Behavior and the Social...

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Unformatted text preview: Human Behavior and the Social Human Behavior and the Social Environment, Macro Level: Groups, Communities, and Organizations Katherine van Wormer Fred H. Besthorn Thomas Keefe Copyright 2007, Oxford University Press. For classroom use only; all other reproduction or circulation is prohibited. Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Theoretical Perspectives Study of human behavior at the macro level—seeking the Study pattern in things pattern Use of our social work imagination required for macro-level generalist practice generalist From an empowerment perspective, HBSE to study From ecosystems of life in their interconnectedness ecosystems HBSE­Macro Level HBSE­Macro Level From an empowerment perspective, From HBSE to study ecosystems of life in their interconnectedness interconnectedness metaphor of the holon environment-in-the-person as well as environment-in-the-person person-in-the-environment person-in-the-environment Theory Construction Theory Construction Theories offer explanations about human behavior Theories and aspects of human behavior. and Term theory can be used in a formal or informal Term theory sense. sense. Theories can be classified in terms of scope: Small range, middle range, grand theory Theories can be classified in terms of ideology: order or consensus perspective conflict perspective Critical Thinking at the Macro Level Critical Two key aspects of critical thinking: (Keefe) (1) empathy – the ability to put oneself in the place of (1) empathy another, at macro level relates to a culture or population; another, profound empathy relates to empathy with nature. relates empathy nature. (2) critical consciousness – understanding encompassing the social and economic context of human problems (from Freire, Brazilian philosopher and activist) Freire, Paradigm Shifts Paradigm The Great Enlightenment – 18th Century ushered in a paradigm shift—a scientific revolution or new worldview (Kuhn, 1962, The Structure of Scientific Revolutions) Revolutions) To Schriver (2004), paradigm shift represents a revolutionary break with past ways of viewing reality. revolutionary May be brought about through actions taken by a May dissatisfied segment of the community or crisis such as war, economic depression, or even a great plague. war, Paradigm Shifts in History Paradigm Shifts in History Pendulum swings between two opposite poles, may Pendulum between right wing and left wing, conservatism and compassion for the poor—social reform compassion Progressive Era—1900-1914 World War I—conservative Great Depression—social reform World War II and the ’50s 1960s Reaganism—trickle down theory Reaganism—trickle Macro-Level Research Macro-Level NASW Code of Ethics (1996) social workers to promote NASW research research Macro level research rarely funded by the government. Evidence-based practice research in demand and vital for Evidence-based social change. social Watch for research biases: researcher’s agenda, selection of Watch variables studied, choice of sample and manner in which data are collected. are Statistical data available at: www.warresisters.org , Statistical www.warresisters.org www.amnestyusa.org , www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs , www.amnestyusa.org www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs www.jointogether.org , www.vpc.org , www.drugpolicy.org www.jointogether.org www.vpc.org www.drugpolicy.org Research Design Research Design Knowledge of research techniques and interpretations enhance critical thinking Social workers need accurate and reliable data at hand to refute false claims and to lobby the legislature for reform Participatory research design—language from the people being studied Introduction to Macro Theory Introduction to Macro Theory Theoretical perspectives are ideologically based, especially macro theory which pertains to the social structure. They reflect cultural and personal biases of the theorist and the period. Theories continually grow and change. Theoretical models in this chapter include: general systems and ecosystems frameworks, sociological theories of structural­functionalism, conflict and structural, and newer approaches­­feminist, empowerment and anti­oppression. Each has strengths and weaknesses. General Systems Theory General Systems Theory This theory first came to scientific attention in the 1960s through von Bertalanffy, a biologist wished theory to serve as a bridge between professionals from different fields. organizing framework from biology Basic Assumptions of Systems Model Basic Assumptions of Systems Model The whole is more than sum of its parts. Open and closed systems: An open system conducts a steady state of exchange with the environment. A closed system is shut off from its environment. Increasing differentiation and specialization from single cell to entire organism Boundaries of the system: firm yet flexible Causality is non­linear, interactive Evaluation of Systems Model Evaluation of Systems Model How to verify? How Cannot be proved or disproved by conventional methodological techniques methodological Does the theory incorporate diversity and Does oppression? Focus is more on order than disorder, little Focus emphasis on diversity or oppression. emphasis Contributions of Systems Model Contributions of Systems Model Virginia Satir (1972) highly influential family therapist, taught therapists to look for family patterns, saw roles as interconnected. Minuchin and Bowen were concerned with the need for firm family boundaries and family communication patterns. General systems theory provides scope and flexibility which may be used at any level. Offers a process for the organization of knowledge in social work. Criticisms of Systems Model Criticisms of Systems Model Negative criticism: This framework lacks a prescription for assessment or intervention in social work. As “order theory,” it fails to deal with variables such as class, race, gender or power relations and conflicts. Positive criticism: This model brings to human behavior a macro perspective, This attention to roles and role playing within the family, work, society society It offers a focus on feedback and system boundaries Shows how parts of the whole fit together and are mutually Shows reinforcing reinforcing Ecosystems Framework Ecosystems Ecological approach—popularized in the “life model” of Germain and Gitterman (1980,1996). Notion of adaptation. Combination of systems theory and an ecological, interactive perspective—a hybrid theory A hybrid model for describing human interaction­­ views organisms in constant interaction and as interdependent with each other and the environment. Environment in ecosystems terms refers to the neighborhood in which one lives and the schools one attends and, in this book, the natural realm. Basic Assumptions and Concepts Basic Assumptions and Concepts Film: America’s Lost Landscape (2005) shows how Film: America’s life on the prairie is circular as are the seasons; anything that was at one time will be again. anything Biological organisms exist in dynamic equilibrium Biological equilibrium with the environment with Interactionism: Force exerted by the organism affects the environment Force Organism adapts, partially adapts or fails to adapt to stress Organism adapts partially from the environment from Organisms work together to form a system: this Organisms system this perspective shows how the parts work together. perspective Other Key Ecological Concepts Other Key Ecological Concepts Niche : a particular place suitable to the growth and development of the organism Transactions : interactions between people and others in their environment Energy : borrowed from systems theory, refers to the power which springs forth and takes the form of input or output depending on the direction of the energy Targets of change : the source of the social work intervention­­ can be individuals, groups, or whole communities Natural Environment Natural Environment Rich and poor populations and nations are joined in global interconnectedness. Goal should be sustainable development for all nations. Besthorn and McMillen (2002), incorporated radical environmental philosophy of ecofeminism, human beings and nature. Criticism of Ecosystems Approach Criticism of Ecosystems Approach Seen as overly inclusive, non-prescriptive, and expository Seen rather than explanatory. Non-verifiable in its broadest formulation, but it is built on Non-verifiable truths that can be validated such as the impact of pollution on the earth and all living things. the Does it incorporate issues of diversity and oppression? Yes; an examination of cultural environments and organizational Yes; responsiveness to cultural diversity is essential to the model. responsiveness Oppression can be addressed as here from an empowerment Oppression perspective. Contributions to Social Work Contributions to Social Work Important idea that person and the environment are in constant and dynamic interaction, a non­linear view Family therapy borrows from ecology; roles individuals play in a family are seen as complementary and interactive. This insight is relevant also to group work. Advantages: provides the ability to analyze circular connections between worker and client, value in assessment, integration of other social work theories More representative than general systems theory of reality, adaptable to all levels of intervention. What Does the Theory Teach about Human Behavior? Behavior? The concept of adaptation in assessing the goodness of person­environment fit or how well people cope with stressors in their surroundings. Can serve to locate points of oppression and the need for structural change to provide personal growth and development. Structural Functionalism Structural Functionalism A theory from sociology—addresses phenomena at the macro­macro level Views the social system as composed of interdependent parts, each with positive consequences or functions, working together to produce stability. Talcott Parsons, 1940s, wanted to construct a grand theory for all the social sciences: Social system must have an adaptive function to relate to ocial other systems. There must be a pattern of maintenance and pattern tension management tension Tendency for system to maintain equilibrium Structural Functionalism Structural Functionalism Merton (1957) contributed concepts of latent and manifest functions Manifest : stated, obvious reasons for an activity Latent: unintended or not initially recognized reasons Conflict can unite people against source of conflict. Gans (1995): used functional analysis from a radical perspective to consider the functions of poverty­­ Poverty has many latent functions such as giving us people to feel superior to, making jobs for social workers, etc. Contribution to Social Work Contribution to Social Work Contributions of Parsons’ ideas not readily apparent Relevance at the wider societal level Enables social workers to examine social institutions from a broad­based perspective Major criticisms Conservative bias of Parsons and his followers due to focus on maintaining equilibrium Acceptance of the status quo Fails to focus on the nature and meaning of the interaction among humans Is the Theory Verifiable? Is the Theory Verifiable? Society decides whether a custom or social activity is functional or not. Government statistics may show the good or harm of a certain practice such as organized crime, the death penalty or poverty. Does the theory incorporate issues of diversity and oppression? Structural functionalism tends to justify societal issues instead of social change to end oppression. Functional analysis may be used by radicals in a creative way to explain oppression. What Does It Teach about Human What Does It Teach about Human Behavior? Functional analysis can be used to handle why questions: why homophobia, poverty, or such lengthy professional education in the U.S.? But theorists should also consider the dysfunctions of homophobia, poverty, etc., in our society Especially important to consider are the latent functions of an activity or custom (for example, weddings and funerals) to appreciate the unintended and hidden aspects of the activities and rituals Conflict and Structural Theory Conflict and Structural Theory Societies not seen in equilibrium but as in perpetual conflict– Societies torn by constraint and struggles for power. torn Assumptions and concepts: Karl Marx: alienation of people from the social system that Karl alienation exploits them exploits C. Wright Mills: the power elite and the sociological C. the power the imagination needed to see through aims of the power structure structure Piven and Cloward: Elites in society can be counted on to Piven provide only enough aid to prevent mass disorder and regulate the poor. Welfare aid is stigmatized. regulate Conflict Theory Offers structural explanations for social and many personal problems. problems. Oppression of the people who are left out of the power structure. structure. Social control seen as a function of much of social work. Canadian theorist Bob Mullaly (1997): structural social work – Canadian structural focus on structure. Views one’s circumstances and difficulties as connected to one’s economic and social position in society. Conflict theory includes feminist, empowerment, and antioppressive ideas. Considerations Considerations Is the conflict theory verifiable? Is Mills’s (1956) concept of the power elite can be validated through the study of major contributors to political campaigns. Who are the major contributors? Does the theory incorporate issues of diversity and oppression? and It looks at the status quo in a critical light. Oppression is a key element in these perspectives Oppression derived from Marxism. derived What is the Influence on Social What is the Influence on Social Work? Impact of conflict theory seen in social work code of ethics which was revised to include ethical responsibilities for social change (NASW, 1996). Seen in international social work’s revised definition of social work to stress principles of human rights and social justice (IFSW, 2004). Critiques of global capitalism borrow ideas from conflict theory. This view helps guide critical thinking about the typical client’s position within the macro environment and how the system works Impact on social work education, including HSBE curriculum. Major Criticisms of Conflict Theory Major Criticisms of Conflict Theory Advocates collective action: weak in dealing with individuals with emotional problems Radical social workers faulted for failing to listen to the clients’ interpretations of their problems. Conflict does not necessarily lead to change – may be viewed as a negative outlook. View of clients as victimized is disempowering. Highly ideological. What Does the Theory Teach about What Does the Theory Teach about Human Behavior? Guides students and practitioners to think critically about power imbalances in society: legislation, policies, oppression of the poor. Helps us understand power and why the rich are getting richer and the poor, poorer Shows how means­tested programs ultimately destroy the programs Shows how welfare practices regulate the poor, and establish social control. Reveals tendencies in society toward greed and punitiveness, the tendency to look down on others. Feminist, Empowerment, and Anti­ Feminist, Empowerment, and Anti­ Oppressive Perspectives Feminism as defined by Van den Bergh and Cooper (1995): “a conceptual framework and mode of analysis that has analyzed the status of women cross­ culturally and historically to explain dynamics and conditions undergirding disparities in socio­cultural status and power between majority and minority populations” (p.xii). Term popularized with the women’s movement of early ’70s “Women’s lib” was mocked in the media at the time. Five Types of Feminism Five Types of Feminism Liberal feminism – equality between men and women through legislation Radical feminism­­ focus on patriarchy, stresses differences between men and women Socialist or Marxist feminism­ oppression viewed as part of the structural inequality within the class­based social system Black feminism­ racism and sexism, black experience compared to experience of white women Post­modern feminism­ how society through language creates social assumptions of how women are and how they should be treated. **Add to this list Ecofeminism – an environmental view that the oppression of women and nature are inextricably linked. Feminist Perspective Feminist Perspective Boxed reading: personal narrative— “Cries from the Second Wave”—one woman’s awakening during the ’70s Third Wave Feminism: Popular books for younger generation: Feminism Is for Everyone (bell hooks, 2000) Manifesta, Baumgardner and Richards(2000)—speak to the Baumgardner younger generation younger Empowerment Perspective Empowerment Perspective (Note: feminism and anti­oppressive social work are both empowerment approaches; here we are talking about social work’s empowerment perspective) The term sprang out of the Civil Rights and feminist movements. Early work in the field: Black Empowerment by Solomon (1976) Focus on use of power to keep people down People encouraged to learn how to obtain power and work for social change To be empowered, a person or group requires an environment that provides options. Empowerment ascribes authority to the individual to make choices. Anti­Oppressive Approach Anti­Oppressive Approach A more radical approach than the US social work empowerment approach. Focus on oppressive system that needs to be drastically changed Aim to minimize power differences in society and in the professions, to maximize the rights to which all people are entitled. In Anti­Oppressive Social Work Theory and Practice, Dominelli (2002) advocates a human rights­based social work. Widely used in U.K. and Canadian social work Views the capitalist social system as generally oppressive. Focus on sweeping social change, has a structural, Marxist base. Considerations Considerations Can these approaches be validated? Verifiable in many of the claims through use of government statistical data and international sources – poverty, oppression and discrimination. Basic ideology convincing but hard to prove. Does the theory incorporate issues of diversity and Does oppression? oppression? The dynamics of oppression, exploitation, social isolation, marginalization and backlash are the focus of this approach. Contribution to Social Work Contribution to Social Work Feminism has had the most tangible impact of the three approaches on social work and society: Has led to a paradigm shift in women’s awareness they deserved the same privileges and rights as men Has had a direct influence in the development of social work as a predominantly women’s profession. Has caused a refocus on women’s needs and safety rather than conformity to tradition. Recognition of the oppression of black women Major Criticisms Major Criticisms Feminism: 2nd wave leaders are criticized for— Focusing on the concerns of white middle class women Dividing “working” women and women who chose to work at home as housewives, failing to include men in the movement. Empowerment: focuses exclusively on working within the system to the neglect of the necessary changes required of the system as a whole Anti­oppressive: many oppressed persons do not accept the radical view of oppression and do not feel connected to other oppressed groups What These Approaches Teach about Human What These Approaches Teach about Human Behavior They show the reality of sexism, racism, ageism, heterosexism, ethnocentrism, etc. They raise awareness of the nature of oppression and the need to use of power in positive ways through raising public consciousness. They show how with help, most people can gain power over their own lives and take action against their own oppression. Practice Implications Practice Implications General systems theory broadens our perspectives. The ecosystems model adds an envi...
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