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Unformatted text preview: Human Behavior and the Social Human Behavior and the Social Environment, Macro Level: Groups, Communities, and Organizations Katherine van Wormer
Fred H. Besthorn
Thomas Keefe Copyright 2007, Oxford University Press. For classroom use only; all other reproduction or circulation is prohibited. Chapter 1
Chapter 1 Theoretical Perspectives Study of human behavior at the macro level—seeking the
pattern in things
pattern Use of our social work imagination required for macro-level
generalist From an empowerment perspective, HBSE to study
ecosystems of life in their interconnectedness
ecosystems HBSEMacro Level
HBSEMacro Level From an empowerment perspective,
HBSE to study ecosystems of life in their
interconnectedness metaphor of the holon environment-in-the-person as well as
person-in-the-environment Theory Construction
Theory Construction Theories offer explanations about human behavior
and aspects of human behavior.
Term theory can be used in a formal or informal
Theories can be classified in terms of scope: Small range, middle range, grand theory Theories can be classified in terms of ideology: order or consensus perspective
conflict perspective Critical Thinking at the Macro Level
Critical Two key aspects of critical thinking: (Keefe)
(1) empathy – the ability to put oneself in the place of
another, at macro level relates to a culture or population;
profound empathy relates to empathy with nature.
(2) critical consciousness – understanding encompassing
the social and economic context of human problems (from
Freire, Brazilian philosopher and activist)
Freire, Paradigm Shifts
Paradigm The Great Enlightenment – 18th Century ushered in a
paradigm shift—a scientific revolution or new
worldview (Kuhn, 1962, The Structure of Scientific
To Schriver (2004), paradigm shift represents a
revolutionary break with past ways of viewing reality.
revolutionary May be brought about through actions taken by a
dissatisfied segment of the community or crisis such as
war, economic depression, or even a great plague.
war, Paradigm Shifts in History
Paradigm Shifts in History Pendulum swings between two opposite poles, may
between right wing and left wing, conservatism and
compassion for the poor—social reform
World War I—conservative
Great Depression—social reform
World War II and the ’50s
Reaganism—trickle down theory
Reaganism—trickle Macro-Level Research
Macro-Level NASW Code of Ethics (1996) social workers to promote
Macro level research rarely funded by the government.
Evidence-based practice research in demand and vital for
Watch for research biases: researcher’s agenda, selection of
variables studied, choice of sample and manner in which data
Statistical data available at: www.warresisters.org ,
www.amnestyusa.org , www.ojp.usdoj.gov/bjs ,
www.jointogether.org , www.vpc.org , www.drugpolicy.org
www.jointogether.org www.vpc.org www.drugpolicy.org Research Design
Research Design Knowledge of research techniques and interpretations enhance critical thinking
Social workers need accurate and reliable data at hand to refute false claims and to lobby the legislature for reform Participatory research design—language from the people being studied Introduction to Macro Theory
Introduction to Macro Theory Theoretical perspectives are ideologically based, especially macro theory which pertains to the social structure.
They reflect cultural and personal biases of the theorist and the period. Theories continually grow and change.
Theoretical models in this chapter include: general systems and ecosystems frameworks, sociological theories of structuralfunctionalism, conflict and structural, and newer approachesfeminist, empowerment and antioppression.
Each has strengths and weaknesses. General Systems Theory
General Systems Theory This theory first came to scientific attention in the 1960s through von Bertalanffy, a biologist
wished theory to serve as a bridge between professionals from different fields. organizing framework from biology Basic Assumptions of Systems Model
Basic Assumptions of Systems Model The whole is more than sum of its parts.
Open and closed systems: An open system conducts a steady state of exchange with the environment. A closed system is shut off from its environment. Increasing differentiation and specialization from single cell to entire organism
Boundaries of the system: firm yet flexible
Causality is nonlinear, interactive Evaluation of Systems Model
Evaluation of Systems Model How to verify?
Cannot be proved or disproved by conventional
methodological Does the theory incorporate diversity and
Focus is more on order than disorder, little
emphasis on diversity or oppression.
emphasis Contributions of Systems Model
Contributions of Systems Model Virginia Satir (1972) highly influential family therapist, taught therapists to look for family patterns, saw roles as interconnected.
Minuchin and Bowen were concerned with the need for firm family boundaries and family communication patterns. General systems theory provides scope and flexibility which may be used at any level.
Offers a process for the organization of knowledge in social work. Criticisms of Systems Model Criticisms of Systems Model Negative criticism: This framework lacks a prescription for assessment or intervention in social work.
As “order theory,” it fails to deal with variables such as class, race, gender or power relations and conflicts. Positive criticism: This model brings to human behavior a macro perspective,
attention to roles and role playing within the family, work,
It offers a focus on feedback and system boundaries
Shows how parts of the whole fit together and are mutually
reinforcing Ecosystems Framework
Ecosystems Ecological approach—popularized in the “life model” of Germain and Gitterman (1980,1996). Notion of adaptation.
Combination of systems theory and an ecological, interactive perspective—a hybrid theory
A hybrid model for describing human interaction
views organisms in constant interaction and as interdependent with each other and the environment.
Environment in ecosystems terms refers to the neighborhood in which one lives and the schools one attends and, in this book, the natural realm. Basic Assumptions and Concepts
Basic Assumptions and Concepts Film: America’s Lost Landscape (2005) shows how
life on the prairie is circular as are the seasons;
anything that was at one time will be again.
Biological organisms exist in dynamic equilibrium
with the environment
Interactionism: Force exerted by the organism affects the environment
Organism adapts, partially adapts or fails to adapt to stress
Organism adapts partially
from the environment
from Organisms work together to form a system: this
perspective shows how the parts work together.
perspective Other Key Ecological Concepts
Other Key Ecological Concepts Niche : a particular place suitable to the growth and development of the organism
Transactions : interactions between people and others in their environment
Energy : borrowed from systems theory, refers to the power which springs forth and takes the form of input or output depending on the direction of the energy
Targets of change : the source of the social work intervention can be individuals, groups, or whole communities Natural Environment
Natural Environment Rich and poor populations and nations are joined in global interconnectedness. Goal should be sustainable development for all nations.
Besthorn and McMillen (2002), incorporated radical environmental philosophy of ecofeminism, human beings and nature. Criticism of Ecosystems Approach
Criticism of Ecosystems Approach Seen as overly inclusive, non-prescriptive, and expository
rather than explanatory.
Non-verifiable in its broadest formulation, but it is built on
truths that can be validated such as the impact of pollution on
the earth and all living things.
Does it incorporate issues of diversity and oppression? Yes; an examination of cultural environments and organizational
responsiveness to cultural diversity is essential to the model.
Oppression can be addressed as here from an empowerment
perspective. Contributions to Social Work
Contributions to Social Work Important idea that person and the environment are in constant and dynamic interaction, a nonlinear view
Family therapy borrows from ecology; roles individuals play in a family are seen as complementary and interactive. This insight is relevant also to group work. Advantages: provides the ability to analyze circular connections between worker and client, value in assessment, integration of other social work theories
More representative than general systems theory of reality, adaptable to all levels of intervention. What Does the Theory Teach about Human
Behavior? The concept of adaptation in assessing the goodness of personenvironment fit or how well people cope with stressors in their surroundings.
Can serve to locate points of oppression and the need for structural change to provide personal growth and development. Structural Functionalism
Structural Functionalism A theory from sociology—addresses phenomena at the macromacro level
Views the social system as composed of interdependent parts, each with positive consequences or functions, working together to produce stability.
Talcott Parsons, 1940s, wanted to construct a grand theory for all the social sciences: Social system must have an adaptive function to relate to
other systems. There must be a pattern of maintenance and
Tendency for system to maintain equilibrium Structural Functionalism
Structural Functionalism Merton (1957) contributed concepts of latent and manifest functions
Manifest : stated, obvious reasons for an activity
Latent: unintended or not initially recognized reasons
Conflict can unite people against source of conflict.
Gans (1995): used functional analysis from a radical perspective to consider the functions of poverty
Poverty has many latent functions such as giving us people to feel superior to, making jobs for social workers, etc. Contribution to Social Work
Contribution to Social Work Contributions of Parsons’ ideas not readily apparent
Relevance at the wider societal level
Enables social workers to examine social institutions from a broadbased perspective Major criticisms Conservative bias of Parsons and his followers due to focus on maintaining equilibrium
Acceptance of the status quo
Fails to focus on the nature and meaning of the interaction among humans Is the Theory Verifiable?
Is the Theory Verifiable? Society decides whether a custom or social activity is functional or not.
Government statistics may show the good or harm of a certain practice such as organized crime, the death penalty or poverty. Does the theory incorporate issues of diversity and oppression? Structural functionalism tends to justify societal issues instead of social change to end oppression.
Functional analysis may be used by radicals in a creative way to explain oppression. What Does It Teach about Human What Does It Teach about Human Behavior? Functional analysis can be used to handle why questions: why homophobia, poverty, or such lengthy professional education in the U.S.?
But theorists should also consider the dysfunctions of homophobia, poverty, etc., in our society
Especially important to consider are the latent functions of an activity or custom (for example, weddings and funerals) to appreciate the unintended and hidden aspects of the activities and rituals Conflict and Structural Theory
Conflict and Structural Theory Societies not seen in equilibrium but as in perpetual conflict–
torn by constraint and struggles for power.
torn Assumptions and concepts: Karl Marx: alienation of people from the social system that
exploits C. Wright Mills: the power elite and the sociological
imagination needed to see through aims of the power
structure Piven and Cloward: Elites in society can be counted on to
provide only enough aid to prevent mass disorder and
regulate the poor. Welfare aid is stigmatized.
regulate Conflict Theory Offers structural explanations for social and many personal
Oppression of the people who are left out of the power
Social control seen as a function of much of social work.
Canadian theorist Bob Mullaly (1997): structural social work –
focus on structure. Views one’s circumstances and difficulties
as connected to one’s economic and social position in society.
Conflict theory includes feminist, empowerment, and antioppressive ideas. Considerations
Is the conflict theory verifiable? Is Mills’s (1956) concept of the power elite can be validated through the study of major contributors to political campaigns. Who are the major contributors? Does the theory incorporate issues of diversity
and It looks at the status quo in a critical light. Oppression is a key element in these perspectives
derived from Marxism.
derived What is the Influence on Social What is the Influence on Social Work? Impact of conflict theory seen in social work code of ethics which was revised to include ethical responsibilities for social change (NASW, 1996).
Seen in international social work’s revised definition of social work to stress principles of human rights and social justice (IFSW, 2004).
Critiques of global capitalism borrow ideas from conflict theory.
This view helps guide critical thinking about the typical client’s position within the macro environment and how the system works
Impact on social work education, including HSBE curriculum. Major Criticisms of Conflict Theory
Major Criticisms of Conflict Theory Advocates collective action: weak in dealing with individuals with emotional problems
Radical social workers faulted for failing to listen to the clients’ interpretations of their problems.
Conflict does not necessarily lead to change – may be viewed as a negative outlook.
View of clients as victimized is disempowering.
Highly ideological. What Does the Theory Teach about What Does the Theory Teach about Human Behavior? Guides students and practitioners to think critically about power imbalances in society: legislation, policies, oppression of the poor.
Helps us understand power and why the rich are getting richer and the poor, poorer Shows how meanstested programs ultimately destroy the programs
Shows how welfare practices regulate the poor, and establish social control.
Reveals tendencies in society toward greed and punitiveness, the tendency to look down on others. Feminist, Empowerment, and Anti
Feminist, Empowerment, and Anti
Oppressive Perspectives Feminism as defined by Van den Bergh and Cooper (1995): “a conceptual framework and mode of analysis that has analyzed the status of women cross
culturally and historically to explain dynamics and conditions undergirding disparities in sociocultural status and power between majority and minority populations” (p.xii).
Term popularized with the women’s movement of early ’70s
“Women’s lib” was mocked in the media at the time. Five Types of Feminism
Five Types of Feminism Liberal feminism – equality between men and women through legislation
Radical feminism focus on patriarchy, stresses differences between men and women
Socialist or Marxist feminism oppression viewed as part of the structural inequality within the classbased social system
Black feminism racism and sexism, black experience compared to experience of white women
Postmodern feminism how society through language creates social assumptions of how women are and how they should be treated.
**Add to this list Ecofeminism – an environmental view that the oppression of women and nature are inextricably linked. Feminist Perspective
Feminist Perspective Boxed reading: personal narrative— “Cries from the Second Wave”—one woman’s awakening during the ’70s Third Wave Feminism: Popular books for younger generation: Feminism Is for Everyone (bell hooks, 2000)
Manifesta, Baumgardner and Richards(2000)—speak to the
younger Empowerment Perspective Empowerment Perspective
(Note: feminism and antioppressive social work are both empowerment approaches; here we are talking about social work’s empowerment perspective) The term sprang out of the Civil Rights and feminist movements. Early work in the field: Black Empowerment by Solomon (1976) Focus on use of power to keep people down People encouraged to learn how to obtain power and work for social change To be empowered, a person or group requires an environment that provides options. Empowerment ascribes authority to the individual to make choices. AntiOppressive Approach
AntiOppressive Approach A more radical approach than the US social work empowerment approach.
Focus on oppressive system that needs to be drastically changed
Aim to minimize power differences in society and in the professions, to maximize the rights to which all people are entitled.
In AntiOppressive Social Work Theory and Practice, Dominelli (2002) advocates a human rightsbased social work.
Widely used in U.K. and Canadian social work
Views the capitalist social system as generally oppressive.
Focus on sweeping social change, has a structural, Marxist base. Considerations
Considerations Can these approaches be validated?
Verifiable in many of the claims through use of government statistical data and international sources – poverty, oppression and discrimination.
Basic ideology convincing but hard to prove. Does the theory incorporate issues of diversity and
oppression? The dynamics of oppression, exploitation, social isolation, marginalization and backlash are the focus of this approach. Contribution to Social Work
Contribution to Social Work
Feminism has had the most tangible impact of the three approaches on social work and society: Has led to a paradigm shift in women’s awareness they deserved the same privileges and rights as men Has had a direct influence in the development of social work as a predominantly women’s profession. Has caused a refocus on women’s needs and safety rather than conformity to tradition. Recognition of the oppression of black women Major Criticisms Major Criticisms Feminism: 2nd wave leaders are criticized for— Focusing on the concerns of white middle class women Dividing “working” women and women who chose to work at home as housewives, failing to include men in the movement. Empowerment: focuses exclusively on working within the system to the neglect of the necessary changes required of the system as a whole
Antioppressive: many oppressed persons do not accept the radical view of oppression and do not feel connected to other oppressed groups What These Approaches Teach about Human What These Approaches Teach about Human Behavior They show the reality of sexism, racism, ageism, heterosexism, ethnocentrism, etc.
They raise awareness of the nature of oppression and the need to use of power in positive ways through raising public consciousness.
They show how with help, most people can gain power over their own lives and take action against their own oppression. Practice Implications
Practice Implications General systems theory broadens our perspectives.
The ecosystems model adds an environmental focus and reveals the interconnectedness off all life – social, physical and spiritual.
Structural functionalism helps us understand the functions of social institutions and their implications.
Conflict theory shows that group solidarity is critical and necessary to influence state and local policy.
Feminist theory guides practitioners in dealing with partner violence, gender identity, and child rearing practices providing insights and enhancing critical analysis. Chapter 2
The Social Psychology of Group Behavior This chapter studies human behavior in situations of social conformity and shows the influence of the group on the individual in both normal and extreme situations. Classic Studies
Classic Studies Present day social psychologists rely on classic studies—most would not be approved by ethical boards today. These classic experiments teach us about human behavior—obedience and conformity.
Kurt Lewin, 1940s, father of small group research Gisela Konopka, also a Jewish refugee from Germany grew up as Jew in authoritarian Germany
interested in democratic forms of government Conducted group experimentation on the impact of styles of leadership (democratic, autocratic and laissezfaire) on boys’ productivity.
A group worker, She returned to help rebuild the country.
Today considered the mother of social work in Germany Studies by sociologists such as Sutherland on Chicago street gang activity
Studies of experiments on productivity of industrial work groups. Sherif’s Summer Camp Experiments
Sherif’s Summer Camp Experiments Muzafer Sherif, ‘40s and early ‘50s Student of Lewin Conducted the Robber’s cave experiments on boys at camp His experiments showed how conflict and cooperation can be generated Importance of superordinate goals – cooperation in order to achieve objective. Festinger’s UFO Study
Festinger’s UFO Study Leon Festinger – Also studied under Lewin
Desire to study how people behave when the facts contradict their beliefs, how they reconcile beliefs and facts
Participant observation study of people who believed world coming to an end
Joined a group of UFO religious fanatics
Wrote When Prophecy Fails
Coined term cognitive dissonance
What are the ethical issues of his research? Studies of Social conformity
Studies of Social conformity Homans : (1950, 1961) said that social conformity is maintained in informal groups because people value approval.
Classic experimental design of Solomon Asch (1951)—this one can be replicated today. Conformity is more prevalent in collectivist societies such as Japan, Norway, and China than in individualistic societies like the United States and France. Social Psychology of the Jury Trial
Social Psychology of the Jury Trial Researchers must rely on mock trials or witness accounts due to cameras and observers not being allowed during jury deliberations.
Success of use of jury is because of the pressures to conform to group norms, a crosscultural trait.
Diversity in the jury pool is important to reduce the chances of group think.
Movie: 12 Angry Men, 1957 showed the power of conformity.
Michael Jackson trial – one juror later reported harassment including ageism to force her to agree in not guilty verdict. Milgram’s Obedience Study
Milgram’s Obedience Study Stanley Milgram – conformity studies (early 1960s) at Yale University. His research is probably the best remembered of the social psychological experiments
Jewish background inspired his interest in obedience to orders to inflict harm
“Teaching” experiment—use of apparent shocks on the learner
Most of the subjects complied with the orders.
Parallels drawn today with Abu Ghraib Erving Goffman’s Role Theory
Erving Goffman’s Role Theory Presentation of Self in Everyday Life
“All the world’s a stage”
Concepts: front stage, back stage, impression
roles in the home, hospital, factory work place, restaurant,
church, and at the party.
Life in the total institution --prisons, the military, the
convent and mental institutions
Social control function Social Life of the Nursing Home
Social Life of the Nursing Home Nursing homes are the familiar institutions of today, as were the asylums of the past.
40 % of Americans over the age of 65 will spend time in a nursing home before they die.
Patients at serious risk for health problems due to low number of nursing home workers.
Goffman’s “impression management” – this may involve renaming the thing (place or condition) that has taken on negative connotations. Nursing homes have been renamed assisted living centers or skilled care facilities and décor changed to resemble homelike atmosphere. Stigma
Goffman wrote Stigma (1963) This book drew on social labeling theory – physical disabilities and official diagnoses come to take on a life of their own. Three categories of stigma: 1. abominations of the body or physical deformities. 2. blemishes of the individual character , such as a criminal record. 3. tribal stigma of race, nation, and religion. “Turning Points”Boxed reading by Rudolph Alexander, Jr. shows how a juvenile sentenced to death row was able to overcome his label and stigma Studies Involving Context
Studies Involving Context 1971 Stanford psychologist Philip Zimbardo’s mock prison experiment Some were guards; some were inmates
Shocking results related to abuse of power
Parallels drawn to Abu Ghraib Psychological processes of dehumanization and deindividuation, or a state of lessened selfawareness Aronson (2004) had female students administer electric shocks to another student.
Mob behavior described in To Kill a Mockingbird (Lee, 1961)
The stabbing of Kitty Genovese Prejudice
Prejudice A learned phenomenon, transmitted from generation to generation through socialization processes
An attitude of negative prejudgment on the basis of a defined characteristic such as race, ethnicity, religion, or gender Discrimination
Discrimination Involves a physical act such as refusing to hire a person because they are African American or Latino or a woman.
May arise from unofficial or official policy
Note: the person who carries out the policy may discriminate without being prejudiced and conversely, the person may harbor prejudices but refuse to discriminate based on government regulations. Stereotyping
Stereotyping Assigning identical characteristics to any person in a group, regardless of the actual variation among members of that group.
May arise from past experience with one or more members of a group; that experience is then generalized to all group members. Psychological Explanations
Psychological Explanations Social workers need to have some general understanding of the nature of prejudice—will see it in their work with clients
Allport, The Nature of Prejudice (1954) outgroup prejudice
AntiSemitism study Adorno devised an FScale to measure fascist or authoritarian tendencies.
childrearing practices found to be related to prejudice A recent study used statistical methods to detect personality patterns in politically conservative persons and found them authoritarian. Psychological Explanations for Prejudice
Psychological Explanations for Prejudice Projection of negative traits onto others (Freud) Reaction formation Adams, Wright and Lohr (1996)—a University of Georgia study on the relationship between homophobia and latent homosexuality
Cases of Mathew Shepard and Jason Gage, openly gay, savagely beaten to death
Picketing of their funerals by hate group led by Reverend Fred Phelps of Topeka, Kansas—see photograph in the text Psychological Factors in Prejudice Continued
Psychological Factors in Prejudice Continued Lack of empathy often goes with a distorted selfimage Empathytraining activities with children show reduction in aggression toward others. Aronson’s jigsaw technique Xenophobia, term derived from the Greek
word for stranger, used in modern English to refer to a fear and dislike of foreigners Sociological Explanations
Sociological Explanations Herbert Blumer (1958) viewed racial prejudice from a sociological lens. Feelings of perceived threat by the dominate racial group.
Bobo (1999) considered feelings of alienation by members of racial minority groups—resentment of recently arrived minority groups who would have lower expectations and fell less alienated
Social functions of prejudice: solidifies the group, encourages internal bonding, the elite can shield themselves from opposition to their policies, hiring practices have economic impact.
Devah Pager (2005) research design – exconvicts seeking jobs Scapegoat theories Bullying …Sociological Explanations Blaming the victim
Lerner (1981) Belief in a Just World, describes how people turn away from a loser. The Bell Curve coauthored by Charles Murray (1994) argued the safety net of welfare was the cause of poverty welfare aid should be removed for the betterment all Boxed reading: Hurricane Katrina and Human Behavior At first, officials blamed the victims for not leaving the city Discusses how people were affected biologically, psychologically, socially and spiritually. Positive Aspects of Collective Behavior
Positive Aspects of Collective Behavior Evolutionary perspective of group behavior, a sense of oneness
Raging Grannies as a positive example of protest with humor
Two social movements: Environmental movement and the Kensington Action Alliance.
Population Conference 1994, World Summit for social Development 1995.
Ecofeminism – term links the twin oppressions of women and nature within the dominance structure of patriarchal social conventions
Kensington Welfare Rights Union (KWRU) to end poverty since 1991.
“New Freedom Bus Ride”
Social Welfare Action Alliance – Radical social work organization
Poor People’s Economic Human Rights campaign – involved two MSW students – The Curry Resolution (See www.kwru.org) Practice Implications
Practice Implications Social work is about helping people turn their lives around, social justice and social change.
Social psychology offers multidimensional understanding of how people behave in certain situations.
Provides knowledge about the impact of group cohesion Teaches about the strength in social movements Chapter 3
Chapter The Small Group as a Social System
This chapter describes the group process as it relates to social group practice including leading task groups and therapy groups. Why Study the Small Group?
Why Study the Small Group? Clients are often treated in group settings, especially substance abuse clients. Insights about the client can be gained by observing the client’s behavior in group setting Group therapy, a device for effecting individual change A Psychodynamic Approach
From Irvin Yalom, The Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy Eleven primary elements in therapeutic change through group therapy: Instillation of Hope Universality Imparting information Altruism Recapitulation of the primary family group (for correction) Imitative behavior Interpersonal Learning Group cohesiveness Catharsis Existential factors Small Group Structure and Process
Small Group Structure and Process
Hierarchy, equality, and democratic functioning Pat Conroy, My Losing Season (2002) relates a boy’s turning point based on informal leadership George Homans (1950) internal and external systems External system – sentiment, activity and interaction aimed primarily at the environment of the group that enables the group to survive. Internal system – sentiment the group members develop toward one another in the process of the group’s interactions. Group norms arise in the group Empowering Group Practice
Empowering Group Practice Boxed reading on empowering practice shows how an individual group member advances through stages of empowerment, joining in consciousness raising as the group takes collective action to overcome oppression. Note that reflection is important throughout the process and after the action has been taken. Group Processes
Group Transference: (Freud, Yalom) seeing traits of a family member in a person within the group.
Acting out by group members
Scapegoats as targets of rage New members and status changes as members adapt
Open groupsconstantly changing such as groups for substance abuse Closed groups– as some AA meetings that do not have a quick turnover and may have a strong cohesiveness and sense of safety Groupthink
Groupthink Janis (1982)—groupthink stems from mindless conformity
Characteristics Belief in the group’s moral superiority
Refusal to examine alternatives
Protecting group from negative views or information
The illusion of invulnerability Critical thinking: See if these traits relate to U.S. foreign policy
Leader can prevent groupthink by encouraging diverse opinions and alternative views to those expressed. Stages of Group Development
Stages of Group Development Stage One: Orientation Stage – initial gathering, casual questioning about mutual interests
Stage Two: Mutuality Stage patterns of communication, alliances and subgroups emerge, as do roles and responsibilities
Stage Three: Drama Stage – testing of old patterns of behavior – human proclivities emerge
Stage Four: Love Ties – acceptance despite shortcomings
Stage Five: Blossoming – change and growth Group Leadership
Group Leadership Early social workers used small groups to effect social goals for the mutual benefit of their members.
Diversity Issues – Racial composition—blacks are more comfortable when ratio of white to black is 5050 than are whites who prefer 8020 ratio
Prepare to hear slurs, bigoted remarks by group members Layout of roomarranging chairs in a circular pattern
Counseling skillsgoing around the circle, ensure privacy and sense of safety, gatekeeping function, summarizing progress, anticipating future meetings Small Group, Social Decisions and Action
Small Group, Social Decisions and Action The Tipping Point, Gladwell (2002) – traces growth of social movement through small groups with real social power.
Power and empowerment: primary role of the social worker is to help the client become empowered
Empowermentbased community work: Five major sources of power: access to wealth and resources, media, prestige, community’s shared values, and choice of effective strategies
For social change, need to politicize and educate consumers as well as social workers to the value and political use of power.
Amish or counterculture groups—they seek autonomy and peaceful lifestyles. Values and Group Work
Values and Group Work Groups form value sets
Helen Northen (2004) Global ethical principles: Professional relationship
Multiculturalism—respect for diversity
Confidentiality and privacy
Professional competence Focus Groups
Focus Groups Research technique to gather qualitative data
Small discussion groups on special topic such as health care
Groups are used by marketers to learn what sales pitch to use.
In social work, may be used to learn how to approach a culturally diverse group, to study attitudes
Example from Appalachia—goal of disease prevention researchers learned of gender roles need to focus health messages on the whole family oneonone counseling was most effective for some women who were fatalistic about their health Innovative Group Work in Women’s Prisons
Innovative Group Work in Women’s Prisons Personal empowerment through selfexpression.
Innovative programs: Canada’s art therapy at Kingston prison New Zealand’s Sycamore Tree project which follows the principle of restorative justice English women’s prison who have a bereavement and loss group The social worker’s role should be that of a consultant and facilitator rather than instructor in order to raise the women’s sense of empowerment
Competency in a skill, and positive social interaction empower the women to succeed both in prison and when they leave SelfHelp Groups
SelfHelp Groups Yalom groups help build confidence through risking new behaviors that can carry over into their social environment. Selfhelp groups offer the same benefitsmajor advantages Typical format of AA group: freedom to come and go when members wish no red tape or expense confession by members to the group of a chronic problem testimonials by members of the group recounting the past and their plan to take one day at a time, and group support given.
Many addictionrelated groups include a spiritual aspect to their recovery. Boxed reading describes a student’s visit to an AA meeting. …SelfHelp Groups Narrative framework – storytellers Some groups advocate for the rights and acceptance of people society views as different such as persons with mental illness. PFLAG – Parents, Families, and Friends of Lesbians and Gays www.pflag.org Sample dialogue from an Iowa PFLAG meeting Chapter 4
Chapter 4 The Family in Society Murray Bowen (1978) and Salvadore Minuchin(1974) pioneers of general systems theory regarding the family as a unit; they revolutionized psychotherapy.
We can examine the family as an ecosystem within an ecosystems framework: Four fundamental concepts: interactionism, stress, coping, and adaptation Germain (1991) provides a framework to view family dynamics Boxed reading: “Growing up Deaf”—what are the strengths of this family?
Ecomap Figure 4.1 Can serve as assessment tool pointing to areas in need of attention
Provides a framework for action, hereandnow interactions of individuals and families Ethnic Family Patterns—Bosnian Muslims
Ethnic Family Patterns—Bosnian Muslims Description of Bosnian Muslim refugee families They adhere to traditional gender roles. Stigma attached to the sexual violation of women.
Positive family identity.
Until the 70’s common for adult children to live with parents for multiple generations Customs removing shoes at the door, neighborliness, drink strong coffee, sharing of food, good conversation, traditional music and dances Strong family ties foster resiliency and lead to healthy outcomes for such immigrant families.
United States should aim to be a cultural mosaic instead of a melting pot. American Indian Families Strong emphasis on being not doing
Cooperation over competition, group focus
Work only to meet needs, non-materialism, flexible sense of
Importance of extended family, individual freedom
Living in harmony with nature, pervasive sense of spirituality
Children reared to pursue their own interests and make their
own decisions; learning comes through their own
observations, and reliance on nonverbal rather than verbal
cues and matriarchal norms
Berdache custom allows for feminine gay men and masculineBerdache custom
acting women to follow their innate proclivities
Two Spirit is a term preferred by many First Nations people
for gays and lesbians who were honored for having both
masculine and feminine tendencies.
masculine African American Family Patterns
African American Family Patterns Strong religious orientation; church provides family support
Flexible family roles, extended family networks, and informal adoption
High status of females
College enrollment up 95% for women and 35% for men
68.4 % births to unmarried women, low marriage rate
High mortality rate for men, 12 % of young males are behind bars.
Blacks comprise 59% of those convicted of drug offences.
Boxed reading “A Nine-Year Old Boy’s Story”—note this child’s
resilience under difficult circumstances.
resilience Latino Family Patterns
Latino Family Patterns In 2000, Latino families replaced African Americans as the largest
minority in the U.S.
Term Latino refers to various diverse populations
More than ¼ live in families with more than 5 members,
Most are Roman Catholic, close family ties, traditional sex roles, care and
respect for the elderly,
Infant mortality low—epidemiological paradox
Familismo --term used to refer to the central role of the family in Latino
communities: this includes immediate, extended, co-parents and
High school drop out rate extremely high, risk for alcoholism, the more
oppressed they feel, the greater risk for addiction and violence in the home
Some negative impacts of assimilation--note the statistics for the 2 nd
Family therapy easily accepted by this group. Asian Family Patterns
Asian Family Patterns Much diversity within this group—Chinese, Japanese, Koreans, Hmong
people 4.2 % of the total United States population. (23.8 % from China) Collectively, Asian families exceed the national average on all positive
categories: education, income and longevity. Divorce rate ½ national average, income level above national average
Rate of single mother births is lowest of any racial ethnic group
Values--bring no shame to family, personal ambitions sacrificed for needs of
the family – (kenshin)
Family is multigenerational, male responsibility for family
Males more highly valued than females, females absorbed into husband’s
Mother is the nurturer and caretaker
Cooperation and sharing among siblings expected
Mother-son bond especially strong
Care and respect for the elderly Identity is “we” rather than “I”
Social workers should take care to recognize differences among these
Family pride often means not sharing personal information. Gay and Lesbian Families
Gay and Lesbian Families Census 2000 : 594,391 samesex couples in the United States. ¼ are raising children, and one in ten couples includes a senior aged 65 or older.
Learning a child is gay or lesbian can be a shock for the parentreligious beliefs, societal stigma, desire for grandchildren, stereotyping.
PFLAG ( Parents, Families and Friends of Lesbians and Gays), www.pflag.org Same sexmarriage legal in Netherlands, Belgium, Canada, Spain, Britain and South Africa while other European countries and some U.S. states allow for rights in civil partnerships.
Two men living as a couple from Eldora, Iowa were named “Foster Parents of the Year 1996”
Boxed reading: “Family Adventure”—note the strengths in this lesbian
headed family. Macro Policy Issues
Macro Policy Issues Family – the backbone of society, provides a number of functions
Government policies influence family functioning. The United States has fallen to the 10th position (UN, 2005 annual human development report) The Impact of Globalization Worldwide
The Impact of Globalization Worldwide Positive and negative aspects of globalization—
pressures from global competition and communications revolution Plight of women refugees, emigration of refugees escaping violence Sex trafficking
Economic impact of world bank requirements for reduction of social servicesfar reaching impacts on all of society
Global market – agency consolidation and corporate management resulting in men displacing women managers Impact of New Economics on the Family
Impact of New Economics on the Family Poor communities disproportionately experience stress
Lowwages, decline in manufacturing, rising housing costs, families with children are the fastest growing homeless population – 42% of the 700,000 persons found to be homeless are families (HUD, 2005).
Bait and Switch: The (Futile) Pursuit of the American Dream, Ehrenreich (2005) and Nickel and Dimed (2002)—participant observation studies
Japan – very strong work ethic— “Karoshi” – means dropping dead at your desk.
Mexico City – children may be left alone while parents work or taken to the jobsite due to lack of childcare.
Scandinavian contrast: business guidelines for Americans—expect long vacations, short work days, multiple benefits, relaxed attitude toward work
Van Wormer’s experience working at a Norwegian alcoholism treatment center Family Violence in Global Perspective
Family Violence in Global Perspective Economic globalization has important human rights implicationspolicies require that nonindustrialized nations reduce their indebtedness to the world bans by reducing social welfare spending.
Women perform twothirds of the world’s work but only earn onetenth of all the income and own less than onetenth of the world’s property.
Economic destitution makes young women ripe for sexual exploitation.
Human rights violations occur at three levels: those done by the family, the community and the state.
Sex trafficking Over one million women and children are trafficked each year
Sex slavery, dowry deaths, death by stoning, genital mutilation, rape www.amnestyusa.org Domestic Abuse
Domestic Abuse World Health Report (based on 48 surveys from around the world) found between 1069 % of women report having been physically assaulted by a partner.
United States, 22 % of wives report domestic violence.
Wife beating is considered a man’s right in many societies and the women interviewed agreed some beatings were justified including burning dinner.
Low rates in Japan 15% to over 60% in Peru, Ethiopia and Bangladesh.
Story of Dr. Shazia, 32 year old Pakistani physician raped by intruder
Suicide common of rape victims in many countries
Honor killings and acid attacks Immigration and Domestic Violence
Immigration and Domestic Violence Immigration status used as a weapon of abuse
Divorce in many immigrant families brings shame on the family from both the family and the community.
Bui (2003) study of Vietnamese immigrants—
downward mobility especially hard on men
Abuse of “military brides” Legacy of the Iraq War Military socialization
Posttraumatic stress disorder
www.warresisters.org Promising Initiatives
Promising Initiatives Kinship care – fastest growing child placement program in the United States. Advantages: stabilizing effect of the extended family and child’s own racial or ethnic communities relative permanence familiarity of the child with the relatives and community Shared family care – established in Colorado Springs. Entire family moves in with a mentor family. Available in 10 states.
Other empowering approaches – mutual aid associations and group/community approaches, “Generations of Hope” house, Healthy Start Family Group Conferencing Family Group Conferencing Form of restorative justice used in child welfare
Involves the extended family in a solutionfocused, strengthsbased approach to solving problems related to child neglect and abuse
Adapted from the Maori people and social service authorities of New Zealand
Informal “around the table” nonadversarial process, includes a trained facilitator, involves the victim their family and the community In criminal cases, family group conferencing stresses offenders’ awareness of the human impact of their behavior provides offender the opportunity to take full responsibility uses a narrative approach, engages the offender’s family members and support system
solicits the families’ support in the process of the offender’s making amends www.restorativejustice.org Chapter 5
Chapter 5 Culture and Society
Culture – the sum total of social patterns passed from generation to generation. Knowledge of culture and cultural history provides important perspectives for understanding human behavior.
Language (even accent) can be used to construct and maintain oppression of a subordinate group.
America is a pluralistic, multicultural society. Hispanic and Asian populations growing 10 times the pace of whites who are not Hispanic, U.S. Census Bureau (2005).
Culturally focused prevention necessary for at risk populations. Cultural competence
Cultural competence Cultural competence – knowledge of client’s culture and customs from diverse cultural backgrounds. Avoid colorblind and genderblind approaches. Three aspects of cultural competence: need to understand and take responsibility for our own beliefs and attitudes need to learn about and expand multicultural experiences use our knowledge to become proponents of multiculturalism Know the resources for intervention.
Ethnicity and Family Therapy, McGoldrick et al. (2005) – spells out norms and folkways, differences in communication styles for dozens of cultural groups.
NASW (1996) Code of Ethics – includes special Ethnocentrism
Ethnocentrism Ethnocentrism is the paradox that as we learn to take pride in our culture, we come to think that our culture is superior to those of other groups.
Cultural imperialism occurs when the dominant group universalizes its experience and culture and uses them as the norm.
Immigration and war heighten the sense of ethnocentrism in a community.
Karen Armstrong (1993) A History of God speaks of fundamentalism
War in Iraq – notion of sacred deaths by terrorists.
Pew Global Attitudes Project (2005)—negative image of the U.S. in international surveys www.pewglobal.org Culture as MacroSystem
Culture as MacroSystem Blackberry Winter (1972), Margaret Mead’s autobiography, tells how to unravel the intricacies of a new culture
Four leaf clover metaphor
Culture has form and pattern, structural inequalities and social class hierarchy.
Dual perspective provides an alternative lens. Cultural Values Make for cohesion and solidarity that help ensure the continuity of group life
Behavior or belief can only be correctly evaluated in the light of its meaning to the people who practice it—rarely spelled out
Western versus Eastern cultural values U.S. Cultural Continuum Work vs. leisure
Equal opportunity vs. equality
Mobility vs. stability
Competition vs. cooperation
Individualism vs. collectivism
Independence vs. interconnectedness
Materialism vs. Spirituality
Nuclear family vs. extended family
Moralism vs. compassion Work vs. Leisure
Work vs. Leisure America values a strong work ethic
Max Weber, The Protestant Ethic and the Spirit of Capitalism
Martin Luther, John Calvin
United States work 2,000 hours average per year, Germany 1,444 and France 1,545
Leisure time : U.S. 10 days, Japanese 18, Chinese 15, British and Australian 25, German and Spanish 30.
Korean work ethic – high suicide rate Equal Opportunity vs. Equality
Equal Opportunity vs. Equality In U.S., stress on opportunity counterpart of inequality
Road to upward mobility is to “play by the rules”
Early education a key factor in success
Some achieve enormous success – others fail miserably.
The Other America, Michael Harrington (1962)
Equality – means sharing the wealth between the haves and the havenots.
U.S. system of equalitymass education, informal language and dress, absence of aristocracy or titles. Admiration of a “self made man”, ideology of “rags to riches”
U.S. richest 1% own 1/3 of nation’s wealth. Bottom 80% have just 16 %. About 31% of black households have zero wealth.
Institutionally based vs residually based (safety net) society.
Meanstested programs become stigmatized programs.
Scandinavian value of equality Mobility vs. Stability
Mobility vs. Stability American ideology promotes a belief in progress – up the corporate ladder.
deTocqueville(1835) saw a nation in constant motion, every change seeming an improvement
Americans as seen by foreigners “brash and risk
takers” Competition vs. cooperation
Competition vs. cooperation Americans taught from childhood to compete.
Pupil competition as spur to learn and to perpetuate the beliefs of market economy.
Arabic principal: “taarradhin” means “ I win, you win”
Chinese – no equivalent word for personality. The concept of self is virtually unknown in most Asian cultures.
Norway and other Scandinavian countries – egalitarianism, horizontally oriented. “Samarbeid” in Norwegian literally meaning “to work together,” permeates every aspect of their culture.
U.S. – vertically oriented. Individualism vs. collectivism Individualism vs. collectivism Individualism—one of the most sacred American philosophies.
Post WWII era favored strong government intervention.
African American values on the collectivist end of the scale
Progressive periods in the U.S. compared to today’s conservative times Collectivism as the norm in Norway and Japan Independence vs. interconnectedness
Independence vs. interconnectedness Independence closely relates to individualism in the United States.
Codependency as a major flaw
U.S. leads or “goes it alone” globally
Interconnectedness and indigenous culture First Nations Peoples in North America—role of elders in the community Materialism vs. spirituality
Materialism vs. spirituality Materialism—consider marketing and consumer spending
Alternative value of spirituality
Salvation: Black People and Love by bell hooks (2001) tells of obsession with material gain that has affected the black family.
Strong religious character in America, noted in various studies comparing U.S. and European attitudes. U.S. Gallup poll survey – 85% said religion important, 2/3 reported membership, 1/3 attend weekly services. Nuclear Family vs. Extended Family
Nuclear Family vs. Extended Family Geographical mobility breaks up extended ties.
Kinship arrangements very different in the non industrialized world.
Various cultural aspects—description of Mexican attitudes Moralisim vs. Compassion
Moralisim vs. Compassion Moralism is the tendency to be judgmental about affairs and events.
International comparisons on several issues: www.worldvaluessurvey.org. British view—strange in America that gun control, stem cell research, seen as moral issues.
Retribution rather than rehabilitation – shown in highest imprisonment rates in the world in the U.S. Rural Cultural Values
Rural Cultural Values What’s the matter with Kansas? How Conservatives Won the Heart of
America, Thomas Frank (2004)—explains how rural people were tricked
into voting on moral rather than economic grounds by Republicans
into Boxed reading“Appalachia: A Study in Contrasts”
Boxed study in cultural trauma Effects of attitude of defeatism and also resilience of mountain people
shown in PBS series, Country Boys
Highlander Research and Education Center—home of activism in the
“Stress Pushes Rural Iowans to Brink” headline in The Des Moines
Register Chapter 6
Chapter 6 Community and Community Development Theme of this chapter--Is the sense of community alive or
dead? This chapter looks at arguments pro and con
dead? Community – defined in the Social Work Dictionary as “a group of
individuals or families that share certain values, services, institutions,
interests, or geographic proximity”
interests, Really two types of community— as a sense of oneness and shared identity
as referring to location or place
Maslow – importance of belongingness, 3rd level in his hierarchy of needs. Theories of Community Breakdown
Theories of Community Breakdown Durkheim (1897) coined the term anomie or normlessness He predicted and showed that industrialized nations would have a higher suicide rate than nonindustrialized nations.
This relationship holds true today. Bowling Alone, Robert Putnam (2001), used team bowling as a metaphor for community togetherness Interpersonal divide: The Search for Community in a Technological Age—title of a recent book that argues the global village has been replaced by a global shopping mall.
Modern technology has transformed the way people relate to each other – radio, television, cell phones, Internet. The Impact of Globalization on Community
The Impact of Globalization on Community Globalization is defined by the International Federation of Social Worker (IFSW, 2005), as “the process by which all peoples and communities come to experience an increasingly common economic, social, and cultural environment” www.ifsw.org Threats to community through the world banking requirements imposed on poor nations – South Africa, Latin American nations forced to make “structural adjustments”.
War and violence related to conquest and greed—and divisiveness of ethnic groups The Corporation and Community
The Corporation and Community The Corporation: The Pathological Pursuit of Profit and Power by Bakan (2004), records the history of the corporation as originally set up to provide a public service.
Corporation exists for profit, not the common good.
Tax structure favors big business and building construction.
Three key terms: privatization, intensified productivity levels, and the technological revolution.
Shops, restaurants, and stores less likely to be family owned, but corporate – WalMart and Target. Trends in Transportation Trends in Transportation Comparison of Minneapolis and Madison Wisconsin corporations in Minneapolis lobbied for freeways while Madison preserved community spirit in street layout. The effects to communities of loss of mass transportation>reliance on automobile>in 1950s move to the suburbs
Consolidation of public schools>busing Absence of sidewalks in suburbs >impact on sense of community Trends in Education
Trends in Education School districts sought lower land costs, closing small rural schools Impact of the mega school Busing now necessary
Increased rates of obesity
Larger classrooms, less individual attention to students School consolidation to save money Small school advantages—intimacy, lower drug use rates, trust, lower dropout rates, children can stay after school, more chances for children to excel in sports, theatre, etc.
Small school grants from the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation
Appalachian schools – central to community and pride, school plays bring the community together Arguments that the Community Is Alive and Well
Arguments that the Community Is Alive and Well The Virtual Community
Influence of the Internet and other technology in
communication (Go to www.MoveOn.org for an example of
organizing and participating in political activities
and street demonstrations via the Internet.)
and …Arguments Community Alive and
Well Bonding in rural communities emerges from togetherness and
Tonnies (1887), divided rural and urban areas into ideal types: Gemeinchaft : shared experiences, traditions and sense of
mutual responsibility and
mutual Gesellschaft : exchange of goods, money or services –
U.S. Census Bureau-- just under 20% of the population is
rural. 80% of farmland in Iowa is owned by people who live in
However, problems from industrial competition leading to
factory outsourcing and small farm economic devastation.
factory Strengths of Racial and Ethnic Communities
Strengths of Racial and Ethnic Communities Each ethnic community is a system with a character of its own.
Outsiders accuse minority groups of being unfriendly or “always hanging around together.”
African heritage, traditions, customs and values unite African American families, communities and organizations. Strong church and family mutual interrelatedness.
Native Americans, strong family bonds, Medicine Wheel, placing good of the group above individual Japanese society “sekentei” means society and reputation. Constant concern about others’ evaluations of one’s behavior.
Latin American subgroups – Mexican, Puerto Ricans, Cubans often live in the same neighborhoods and community bonds are strong. Pride in the Gay/Lesbian Community
Pride in the Gay/Lesbian Community June is the unofficial month for gay pride.
Rainbow colored symbols symbolize diversity and bonding.
Accessline: Iowa’s Gay Newspaper, published bi
monthly provides relevant news and community announcements. Distributed free of charge. The Deaf Community Members of the deaf community define deafness as a cultural rather than an audiological phenomenon. Common language, shared experiences.
Refer to earlier boxed reading on growing up deaf in chapter 4. Religious Communities
Religious Communities More Americans will attend a church service each week than all the Americans who attend sporting events over the entire year, Rick Warren (2002).
Have both positive and negative aspects Provide strengths—faith and meaning, community, and a shared value system
Provide help for members of the church and community outreach to the poor. Building Community Bonds
Building Community Bonds Social action directed at the source of a problem –
grass-roots Black Hawk County, Iowa. 13 women never gave up the
fight against poor management of local women’s shelter.
Set up alternative service-- Seeds of Hope outreach, which
was awarded the entire annual grant of $200,000.
Policy reform at the Iowa state level- African American
community and state legislatures restored voting rights to
over 50,000 disenfranchised persons convicted of a felony
upon completion of their terms.
Tupelo, Mississippi – communitarianism. Grew to become
an internationally recognized magnet for industrial
investment. Restorative Justice as Community Justice
Restorative Justice as Community Justice Standard criminal justice process can exacerbates community divisions. Restorative justice rooted in indigenous rituals and Mennonite philosophy Works in conjunction with established correctional institutions from the standpoint of the victim of the crime.
Major goal is to repair the harm done to the victim and the community, make the wrongdoer accountable to the victim and the community
Types most relevant to community bonding Victimoffender conferencing
Community reparations Boxed Reading: “Restorative Justice: A Model of Healing”—
relates restorative justice to social work values Practice Implications
Practice Implications Social workers play a key role in their local communities advocate for social service programs engage as community members in working toward social economic development and political lobbying for social justice Need to understand the community as an ecosystem
Boxed reading, “Community Development in Moldova” by young social worker in the peace corps describes her work as advocate, initiator, and broker Chapter 7
Human Behavior and the Organizational Environment: The Community Working Together Organization – structure, hierarchy, channels
of communication, a working environment
Organizational culture – “shared norms,
beliefs, values, symbols, and rituals” that guide
the social behavior Organizational Climate
Organizational Climate Positive climate Openness and camaraderie Democratic decision making Shared sense of mission
Negative atmosphere Climate of competition and jealousy among workers Climate of almost religious loyalty to organizational principles Conflict at upper levels Hierarchy built on favoritism Adopting a Critical Perspective
Adopting a Critical Perspective Question all forms of oppression in organization.
Draw on our social work imaginations.
Boxed reading: “Reconciling Theory and Practice”—
student writer is torn between philosophical ideals of social work and agency dictates.
Historical overview: Max Weber on bureaucracy Specified qualifications of workers
Detached impersonal approach
Formal written communication
Rewards in salary, pensions, seniority Leadership in Organizational Settings
Leadership in Organizational Settings Traditional leadership theories: Trait theory – great man or great person Positional theory – Leaders are not born, but created by virtue of the positions they hold. Situational theory – Leadership is a function of the leader’s behavior in relationship to the behaviors of the followers. Style theory – various styles that characterize certain leaders. Authoritarian, laissezfaire, democratic. Leadership Styles
Leadership Styles Theory X assumes people don’t like to work and need to be coerced, directed and threatened. Theory Y assumes people want responsibility and are willing to learn Democratic Leadership – based on a paradigm of mutuality and interrelationships
Theory Z focuses on how to apply humanistic and collectivist management philosophies such as used in Japan
Democratic leader provides an atmospheres of empowerment for members of the organization. Leader determines how the members will go about the process of thinking and deciding, not what the member will think or decide. The Classic Bureaucratic Model
The Classic Bureaucratic Model Mid 19th century – heavy industry and manufacturing in full swing. Belief in and reliance upon mechanical systems. Bureaucracyvery hierarchical – like a pyramid. Boss, middle management and workers at the bottom. Principles of scientific management were adopted in early 20th century, new stress on efficiency, productivity Human Relations Model
Human Relations Model Great Depression early 1930s, affected rich and poor alike.
Human relations model—a reaction against scientific management, stress on human relations in work
The Hawthorne effect –concept emerged in study at the Western Electric Company, found organizations function best when managers pay positive attention to workers and honor the interests of the informal networks.
Organizations began to be open systems, adaptable, growing, thinking and evolving. General Systems Models
General Systems Models 1960s and ‘70’s new technologies and growth
General systems theories used to construct models and conduct research on complex organizations and it’s interaction with the environment.
Contingency School – organizations are in constant movement and contingent on a number of factors such as structure, leadership. No best way to run an organization.
Characteristics of contingent systems: importation of energy, throughput (producing products), output, systems as cycles of events, entropy, information input, steady state and homeostasis, differentiation. and equifinality. Non-Hierarchical or Consensual Models
Non-Hierarchical Control rests with the membersemployeeowners.
Primary goal to prevent or minimize alienation of workers by the larger, complex, hierarchical organizations
Characteristics: decisions made after discussion by members minimal rules personal rather than formal relationships among members
leadership based on election, with rotations of leadership
non financial reward for leadership roles, and no winners or losers in decision making. NonHierarchal
OrganizationsJapan Japanese organization – value cooperation and collective decision making
Differences between formal organization in Japan and the U.S. : Hiring and advancement
Collective decision making The Corporation
The Corporation Corporate influence ties in with government policy. 2003 Canadian documentary, The Corporation, charts the development of the corporation as a legal entity.
The corporate mediaadvertisers exert pressure on media coverage of the news and criticisms of products. Boycott of The Los Angeles Times by General Motors.
Media molds public opinion.
The corporate work model downsizing, outsourcing, wage flexibility, costefficiency, accountability, productivity.
Robert Greenwald’s documentary WalMart: The High Cost of Low Price.
The McDonaldization of Society, by Ritzer shows how standardization of the product and interchangeablity of workers is the modern way. Impact of the Market Economy on Social Work
Impact of the Market Economy on Social Work Privatization – subcontracting out of services as costcutting measures
Intensified productivity – maximum worker output is measured in terms of speed and profitability with the fewest number of workers
Less time for clients, more time on paperwork to prove accountability
Technological revolution accountants in India can check the income tax form for the IRS
Human service operations – practitioners instructed to use computer technology not only to store data but to retrieve professional papers, medical and technical information and education
Exploitation by managers surveillance of workers, lack of trust Classic View of Alienation
Classic View of Alienation Alienation is defined in various ways: as powerlessness, meaninglessness, normlessness, isolation and self estrangement. Marx said alienation changes a society as the society industrializes Durkhem believed it was the result of isolation in a disintegrating society.
Material sources—workers seldom own their own tools or control working conditions Creation of new markets—the nature of capitalism Organizations that Empower
Organizations that Empower Boxed reading by prison social workerteacher tells how she helped her students become empowered in their learning experience in a disempowering setting—the prison
Attention is paid to staff development and education.
Must look beyond the status quo to alternative models.
Change efforts start with data gathering, supporters and presentation of a proposal for change at a staff meeting.
Strengthsbased assessment of the agency Advice for change agents: introduce ideas one at a time, be flexible, open to suggestions and do not invest too much power in one individual
Social worker might feel alienated when goals of organization conflict with social work values; clients do not come first; pressures external to the agency hinder creativity. Chapter 8
Human Behavior and the Natural Environment:
The Community of the Earth Chapter is concerned with the bio part of the bio
psychosocialspiritual study of human behavior.
Biology of this chapter is at the macro level, of
relevance to macro social welfare and social work Ecological Disaster and Decline: Ecological Disaster and Decline: Global Challenges: World Watch Institute(2004) documents ecological decline.
Population: Annual growth rate of 1.5 percent; world adds 85 to 100 million new people each year Every three years more people are added than currently live in the entire United States. U.S. around 300 million. By 2025, over 3 billion people worldwide will be living in countries with depleted water resources, cropland, forests, and biodiversity. The Loss of Biodiversity
The Loss of Biodiversity
Biodiversity:the variability among living organisms that maintains the health of living things on the earth Silent Spring, Rachel Carson (1962) documented chemical pollution Land Institute's prairie in Salina, Kansas—goal to restore natural ecosystem, plants, insects, and animals in balance, restore biodiversity to the earth www.LandInstitute.org Millennium Ecosystem Assessment (2005), funded in part by UN, showed humans have radically altered our ecosystems Contamination of water from fertilizer pollution
20% of coral reefs were lost in last 20 years Human societies can ease the strain on nature through changes in consumption patterns, education, technologies, reduction in fertilizers and pesticides, and higher prices placed on industry and agriculture for exploiting practices. War and the Environment
War and the Environment Invasion of Panama in 1989—uprooted people turned to the land Gulf War— Millions of barrels of oil dumped into the sea
Depleted uranium used to destroy tanks—probable cause of Gulf War syndrome Afghanistan—landmines threaten humans
Palestine—water system affected by toxic weapons
Depleted uranium tipped warheads used against Iraq National Gulf War Resource Center www.ngwrc.org
The Sierra Club www.sierraclub.org Environmental Racism
Environmental Racism Women, people of color, children, and the poor
disproportionately affected by pollution
Indian Reservations – toxic dump cites
Louisiana's “Cancer Alley”—in poor African American
Title 6 Civil Rights Act guarantees equal protection under the
Anniston, Alabama--Monsanto law suit settled $42.8 million
(Environmental Justice Resource Center, 2001) cancer causing
PCBs polluted waterways and fish that low income,
predominantly black citizens ate.
Consumerism Buy and Be HappyThe American Dream global capitalism—creates desire for products for which there is no need; natural things turned into commodities
materialism and consumerdriven economy
Material accumulation detracts from personal wellbeing
Overconsumption a threat to the physical, emotional, and social health of humans is the single largest danger to the earth’s ecosystems. The U.S. consumes 25% of the world’s energy while constituting only 5% of the world’s population.
Industrial countries comprise only ¼ of the world's population while consuming 4086% of the earth’s various natural resources. Global Warming
Global Warming Shift in public consciousness concerning natural disasters and the genuine threat to their safety and personal security and the link to global warming
Documentation provided in Al Gore’s film, “An Inconvenient Truth”
Carbon dioxide filling our atmosphere the greenhouse effect.
Effect of climate change on food production, human health, immigration patterns and climate related problems
The International Panel on Climate Change predicts the average global temperature will increase from 2 to 10 degrees F over the next 100 yrs.
Rapid acceleration in the rise of sea levels. At the current rate, levels could rise as much as 20 feet within the next 100 years swamping low lying estuarial areas around the world.
Recently another 10,000year old ice shelf on the Antarctic Peninsula melted in just 3 weeks (Environmental News Service, 2005). Conventional Ideas of Community and Environment Conventional Ideas of Community and Environment in Social Work The Progressive Era – late 19th century shaped the identity and purposes of the emerging profession of social work. Shift in public thinking away from blaming the individual for poverty to seeking out the structural causes.
Belief in the environment as a force shaping human development, but attention exclusively to social not natural environment
John Muir (18381914), wrote of nature consciousness – stressed the deeper aspects of nature Gifford Pinchot, in contrast, considered only the practical side of conservation of natural resources for use by future generations.Dominance of the modernist viewpoint of Pinchot The Social Work Profession Emerges
The Social Work Profession Emerges Evolution of two organizational movements: Charity Organization Societies Effort to coordinate relief on a communitywide basis
Friendly visitors investigated worthy poor. The poor were seen to be morally responsible for their own circumstances.
Mary Richmond associated with this approach Settlement Houses – Established in immigrant neighborhoods Educated women moved into these areas to live among the people in need of help. City environment was the locus of change – not the individual.
Jane Addams associated with this approach. Views of Person and Environment
Views of Person and Environment World War I – culture shift, war fever, faith in
capitalism and science. Nature to be controlled.
Social work driven to professionalize, renewed
interest in science, took the first steps towards an
individual-oriented, therapeutic model of practice.
Conventional Ideas: 1960-1980 multiple historic
markers—racial and social upheaval
Systems and ecological approaches in social work;
still little attention to natural realm
New environmental movement – Rachel Carson
(1962) Silent Spring. Saw nature itself as under attack
Saw nature Link of Person and Environment
Link of Person and Environment Influence of Carol Germain and Alex
Gitterman (1976,1980)-- problems a result of
stress due to and inadequate fit between people
and their environments.
Person in environment: social work still
maintained the status quo view
maintained Alternative Perspectives on Person and Alternative Perspectives on Person and Environment Deep ecology – term coined by Arne Naess of Norway
Deep ecology Includes all human and non human beings, processes,
things and systems in the total planetary ecology Emphasizes understanding of systems in a holistic way Concerned with equality and eco-justice in humanities
relationship with nature
In contrast, shallow ecology
shallow Concerned with ecological problems only because of their
impact on humans
impact Emphasis on privileged classes and societies
Human beings are not the prime center of importance in the
Humans aren’t in the environment, but with the environment.
Notion of an ecological self.
an … Deep Ecology
… Deep questioning can lead to a shift of consciousness. We can know other beings through deep empathy.
Deep ecology is about unity with other people and with the earth itself
Gives human/nature relationship central importance.
Implications for social work—need to address problems that arise from destructive interference with nature Norway and Deep Ecology
Norway and Deep Ecology Boxed reading: “Insights on Deep Ecology from Norway” by Fred Besthorn Norway ranked number one in human development Landscape of deep fjords and high mountains Natural environment as a spiritual sanctuary Belief in land as open to all; public can roam freely on open countryside Skiing, biking, walking for all; nonmotorized recreation Note from van Wormer who experienced this sense of nature in living and working in Norway Alternative Perspectives on Person and Alternative Perspectives on Person and Environment Ecofeminism (Francoise d’Eaubonne, 1994) illustrates the potential of women for bringing about an ecological revolution to guarantee human survival. Rejects dominance, competition, materialism and techno scientific exploitation and competitive aspects of social systems. Major conceptual themes: Image of nurturing mother caring for her children Relationships and all forms of social domination are feminist concerns Interconnectedness of everything.
Ecofeminism rejects the reductionist tendencies and emphasizes the organic wholeness of the universe. A New Ecological Model for Social Work
A New Ecological Model for Social Work Social work must return to its progressive activist roots, to: political action, policy formation and attention to global issues practice the value of material equality
advocate for an alternative vision of the good life
criticize modern economic theory
confront the illusion of consumer happiness
We recommend a reorientation of social work perspective from being in environment (social) to being in nature (as a totality). Educational setting should operate in environmentally sound manner
and encourage social activism to confront oppression.
In short, this book offers a new vision of community, return to joy in the simpler life, pleasure in nature, conversations, spiritual rituals, neighborhood gatherings, family outings, artistic pursuits, music, dance, literature, and experiencing nature. Chapter 9
Human Behavior and the Religious/Spiritual Environment: The Community of Faith This chapter is concerned with spirituality and religion – both may be a search for the sacred. Models of spiritual growth across the life span are explored as is the social work interest in spiritual and religious expression. Social Work’s Treatment of Religion Social Work’s Treatment of Religion and Spirituality Laura Praglin, social work scholar (2004), delineated four typical ways the social work has responded to the concepts of religion and spirituality: 1) resistance or avoidance of a dialogue on the subject;
2) an overly generalized acceptance of the spiritual nature of practice , minimizing conflict;
3) a radical separation of the terms spirituality and religion for ideological reasons; has led to feeling of rejection by evangelical Christians; 4) a sincere interdisciplinary engagement of the two constructs. Holistic Model – views spirituality as one aspect of what it means to be human; as providing a sense of wholeness.
Boxed reading, “Earth as Source of Spirit” (Michael Sheridan)—healing powers of the earth shown in case studies of social work with male inmates, urban adolescents, and women in substance abuse treatment. Their images of nature made them feel peaceful and connected. Social Work’s Early Religious Heritage
Social Work’s Early Religious Heritage Mainstream Protestantism PreCivil War period– Protestantism, the dominant religious force, brought unity, but poverty viewed in terms of personal flaws PostCivil War—tendency toward disunity, antiCatholicism
Mainstream Protestantism failed to meet the challenges of the industrial revolution. The Social Gospel Movement
The Social Gospel Movement The Social Gospel new form of Protestant Christianity liberal Protestantism’s response to the unregulated capitalism and the environmental circumstances of human misery.
Institutional churches or religious settlements – it was the environment, not the individual that formed the locus of change.
Reform oriented—focus on living as Jesus lived rather than on doctrine
Crossfertilization of ideas with social work Protestant Fundamentalism
Responsible for the following institutions: the YMCA private philanthropic agencies denominational hospitals city missions the temperance movement the Salvation Army Theoretical Perspectives on Spirituality
Theoretical Perspectives on Spirituality These perspectives provide social workers with a general
framework for how people understand and incorporate
constructs into their lives.
Gordon Allport – Model of Religious Sentiments (1950)-one’s religiosity was very different from that which was
experience in childhood. Three stages:
1) raw credulity- young to middle childhood children believe
what their told.
2) satisfying rationalism- adolescence when teens start to
question beliefs from childhood
3) religious maturity- adult religious development
characterized by ability to have religion while also being able
to critically reflect and question
to Fowler’s Model of Spiritual Development
Fowler’s James Fowler (1981) influenced by Erikson, Piaget and Kohlberg. Relied on intensive interview with subjects aged 384.His six stages:
(prestage period) primal faith 1 intuitiveprojective faith – children – symbols, dreams and imagination. 2 mythicliteral faith stage – children separate fantasy from reality. God in human terms, father, ruler.
3 syntheticconventional faith – adolescent – selfreflective. God seen with personal qualities of love, acceptance and understanding.
4 individuativereflective faith transition from late adolescence to responsibility for one’s own beliefs and lifestyle.
5 conjunctive faith midlife, recognize God is both personal and abstract. Either/or debates become both/and resolutions.
6 – universalizing faith – pinnacle of faith development, deep recognition of the oneness of all experiences and phenomenon. Only 3 out of every 1,000 people reach this stage. Mahatma Gandhi, Martin Luther King Jr., Mother Teresa. Wilber’s Model of Consciousness
Wilber’s Model of Consciousness Ken Wilber (1980) full-spectrum model of consciousness-- a complex
system that focuses on both individual and collective aspects.
Influenced by psychoanalytical theory
View of the separateness of things as an illusion and not a reality
Insight can occur by virtue of an evolutionary ascent to a higher stage of
consciousness that integrates all the previous stages and represents a
transpersonal level of awareness.
Holon – composed of whole/parts
10 basic stages of psycho-spiritual development occur in three general
phases of development:
Stages 0-3 prepersonal or preegoic phase.
Stages 4-6 personal or egoic phase.
Stages 7-9 transpersonal or trans-egoic phase.
Achievement of strong ego development and self-actualization is not the
highest goal but rather the “spirit” level – beyond ego or self to selfhighest
transcendence and unity with the ultimate reality. Concluding Remarks
Concluding Remarks No perfect theoretical models of religious and/or spiritual
Inherently biased toward Western belief systems
Challenge to social work is to rediscover linkages among
spirituality and religion, and social work theory and practice
Conclusion to the book—we have come full circle, from study
of human behavior in the group, family, culture, community,
organizations to ever higher levels of abstraction—the natural
environment and spiritual realms. Image of holon to show that
each part is both a whole and a part of another whole.
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