BIO152H-June 2008 - BIOISZHSF Page i of 18 NAME (PRINT):...

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Unformatted text preview: BIOISZHSF Page i of 18 NAME (PRINT): LastlSurname First [Given Name STUDENT NO: SIGNATURE: UNiVERSiTY OF TORONTO MISSISSAUGA JUNE 2008 FINAL EXAMINATION B|0152H5F introduction to Evolution and Evolutionary Genetics Maria Arts Duration - 3 hours Aids: Non—Programmable Calculators You may be charged with an academic offence for possessing the following items during the writing of an exam unless otherwise specified: any unauthorized aids, including but not limited to calculators, cell phones, pagers, wristwatch calculators, personal digital assistants (PDAs), iPods, MP3 players, or any other device. If any of these items are in your possession in the area of your desk, please turn them off and put them with your belongings at the front of the room before the examination begins. A penalty may be imposed if any of these items are kept with you during the writing of your exam. Please note, students are NOT allowed to petition to RE-WRlTE a final examination. This examination consists of 80 multiple choice questions; 10 me questions pertain to your labs. Each question is worth 1 mark. (Total of 80 marks) Answer 3 out of the 4 short answer questions, each is worth 12 marks. Please write clearly and. ONLY in the space provided. (Total of 36 marks) Good luck! — - — - - - BIOIS2H5F Page 2 of 18 BIULTIPLE CHOICE (80 marks) 1. The biological classification system used today is referred to as: a) dichotomous taxonomy b) dichotomous nomenclature c) binomial nomenclature d) binomial taxonomy e) taxonomy 2. Which statements are true? i. resurrecting the 1918 flu will help scientists better understand virulence of viruses ii. transgenic crops on the market include: corn, squash, canola, soybeans, cotton iii. there is no absolute truth in science iv. crops that make Bt may speed up the evolution of pesticide resistance in insects v. kin selection may be favored because it increases the survival of genetically—related organisms a) i, ii, iii b) i, iii, iv o) i,ii,v cl) iii, iv,v e) all of the above 3. Which of the following is not a population? a) all the nutgrass in your backyard b) all the organisms living in your home 0) all the students in your class d) all the people in your neighborhood e) all the Staphlococcus aureus living on your skin 4. Bt corn can affect non—target organisms, including a) monarch butterflies b) wild bees c) domesticated bees d) decomposers 6) all of the above 5. When two species mate and the offspring die during embryonic development, this is an example of: a) hybrid sterility b) temporal incompatibility 0) hybrid inviability d) mechanical incompatibility e) behavioral isolation 6. Which of the following are incorrectly matched? a) polyploidy. ...can result in the doubling of chromosome number b) polyploids. . .are reproductiver isolated from their diploid parents 0) polypioidy. . .exhibit novel phenotypes d) autopolyploidy. . .mating between different species results in hybridization c) all are correctly matched BIOISZl-ISF Page 4 of 18 i3. Soapbeny bugs a) show disruptive selection b) provide an example of host switching c) provide an example of potential sympatric speciation d) b and c e) a, b, and c 14. Why doesn’t inbreeding depression, by itself, cause evolution? a) it violates the Hardy—Weinberg assumptions b) it does not change the population’s allele frequencies c) it limits gene flow (1) it increases homozygosity c) it decreases the population’s average fitness 15. Why is the Hardy—Weinberg Principle useful to biologists? a) it allows biologists to determine genotype frequencies from phenotype frequencies b) it explains how evolution cecurs at the population level 0) it functions as a null hypothesis when testing for evolution in populations (1) it explains how random chance mathematically affects evolution e) all of the above 16. The domestic dog, red fox, and wolf belong to the family Canidae. The dog is Canisfamilz‘aris, the red fox is Vuhres Wipes, and the wolf is Canis lupus. a) all three canids are in different genera b) all three canids are in different classes 0) the red fox is in the same family, but different genus than wolves and dogs d) all three belong to the same genera but are different species e) the wolf is in the same family, but different genus than dogs and red foxes 17. Which statement is false? a) females usually invest more in offspring than males b) competition is most intense among members of different species 0) herbicides can cause intense selection pressure d) not all evolutionary changes result in new Species e) not all animals learn by trial and error 18. Which statement is false? a) avian—flu viruses outnumber human ones a) viruses mutate so quickly that new vaccines have to be made each year b) I-ISNE virus is lethal to chickens but also kills mammals c) normally bird flu viruses can’t attack humans because they can’t invade or grow in human cells d) none of the above 19. If behavior is under partial genetic control, then a) no variability in behavior will be seen b) it is not subject to natural selection 0) it may be modified by experience d) it is acquired only through learning 6) it will be species—specific BIOISZHSF Page 3 of 18 7. Which statements about herbicide tolerance islare incorrect? a) post emergence spraying of herbicide—resistant crops will kill the crops b) herbicide-resistant crops are of high economic value to the agribusiness industry 0) transgenes for herbicide tolerance could result in greater relianCe on herbicides d) herbicide tolerance could spread to weed populations 6) c and d 8. The two basic types of cells are: a) prokaryotic, eukaryotic b) bacterial, animal c) plant, animal d) bacteria, archaea e) autotrophic, heterotrophic 9. Which of the following statements are false?: a) vitamin A deficiency leads to blindness b) golden rice is a hybrid crop c) cholera and myxomatosis are transmitted by vectors d) according to the Handicap Principle, exaggerated traits are honest indicators of male fitness e) beta-carotene is a precursor to vitamin A 10. Which of the following statements are true? i. the greater number of chromosomes, the greater potential for genetic diversity ii. outcrossing increases genetic diversity iii. experiment with New Zealand snails showed that sexual reproduction occurs more often in habitats where parasites are common iv. environment does not influence reproduction of prokaryotes v. result of synapsis is a tetrad a) i, ii, iii b) i, ii, iii, iv e) i, ii, iv,v d) i, ii, iii, v e) ail of the above 11. Which statement is false? 3) the 1918 influenza was so widespread that everyone on earth breathed in the virus b) if you are vaccinated against the flu, you will not catch a flu that year c) flus that we catch today likely are descendants of the 1918 influenza (1) poultry markets often act as a viral inoculation center e) highly virulent influenza can easily be spread by means of jet travel 12. Females may choose a mate based on all of the following except: a) the quality of the resources on his territory b) his display of food items c) his apparent good health d) his physical features e) the increased probability that his sperm will fertiiize the eggs BIOISZHSF Page 5 of 18 20. Which of the following statements are true? 2]. 22. 23 24. 25. i. the motor patterns of courtship display in mallards is inherited ii. cognition is observed only in mammals iii. Darwin hypothesized that all animals faced general challenges of life and therefore require problem-solving abilities iv. New Caledonian crows make tools and solve complex problems v. Asian elephants show self-recognition when presented with a mirror a) i, ii 1)) i, ii, iii 0) i, ii, iii, iv d) i, iii, iv,v e) i, ii, iii,v Which of the following is false? a) on a lek all males get an opportunity to breed b) systematics is the study of biological diversity and its evolution 0) large antlers is evidence of sexual selection d) mutation is the ultimate source of all genetic variation e) sexual recombination increases variation Two evolutionary concepts of success include: a) reproduction and luck b) behavior and survival 0) adaptation and diversity of species (1) fitness and luck e) survival and reproduction Which of the following can be considered a transgenic organism? a) a human given a corrected human blood—clotting gene 1)) an organism producing both egg and sperm c) a fern grown in cell culture from a fern root cell d) a cat with rabbit hemoglobin genes e) a North Atlantic fish with cold—tolerance genes Which of the following is likely a reason why evolutionary radiation would occur on islands? a) there are many more species on islands b) islands may have fewer animal and plant groups and thus provide more ecological opportunities c) islands tend to have more favourable habitats than continents because they are moderated by the ocean d) organisms can disperse easily across oceans e) islands often have more diverse habitats than continents A population evolves when a) environmentally— induced variation is constant between generations b) the environment changes on a seasonal basis c) individuals with different genotypes survive and reproduce at different rates d) members reproduce by cloning e) juvenile and adult stages require different environments BIOISZHSF Page 6 of 18 26. Which of the following statements are true? i) theories are more comprehensive than hypotheses ii) a control group serves to increasa the sample size of the experiment iii) family is more inclusive than class iv) the why question attempts to explain the ultimate cause of behavior v) the common cold is usually not very virulent a) iv,v b) i, ii, iv c) i, iii, iv d) i, iv, v e) all ofthe above 2?. The science of naming organisms is called: a) systematics b) biogeography c) phylogeny d) taxonomy e) species nomenclature 28. Which of the following is a hypothesis? a) my lawnmower won’t start a) my lawnmower is old so it functions poorly b) what can be wrong with this machine? c) my lawnmower is out of fuel e) when I add fuel, my lawnmower will start 29. The smallest unit of evolution is alan: a) species b) order c) population d) phylum e) class 30. Evolutionary biologists believe that all species are descended from: a) hundreds of different origins b) a single ancestral species c) at least one ancestral species per kingdom d) at least one ancestral species per domain e) at least a few ancestral species per domain 31. Which statement is false? 3) worldwide, nearly 20 species of transgenic fish and shellfish have been developed 1)) achieving 100% sterility in GM fish is not hard to do and will solve the problem of GMO fish interbreeding with wild fish c) antifreeze proteins increase GM salmons’ tolerance for cold water d) release or escape of GM fish may cause irreversible damage to the natural aquatic ecosystem e) aquaculture appears to be a cost—effective alternative to traditional fisheries BIOISZHSF Page 7 of 18 32. Genetically modified salmon 33. 34. 35. 36. 37. 38. a) b) 0) d) 6) Which of the following are matched incorrectly? a) Wilson. . . .the loss of biodiversity is the most important process of environmental change b) Linnaeus... father of taxonomy c) Dobzhansky. . .nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution (1) Wallace. . .first used the term evolution e) Konrad Lorenz. . .study of imprinting grow much more rapidly than nontransgenic fish in a highnfood availability environment showed population crashes when food availability was low would go extinct in the wild at and 0 al, b, and c Fragmented populations living in isolated patches a) result from the introduction of new Species b) are composed of related species 0) may suffer from a decrease in gene flow d) are likely to exhibit low levels of genetic diversity e) c and (1 Which statement/s about corridors is/are incorrect? a) result in large edge effects b) do little to increase gene flow c) may be a route for disease transmission d) in urban centers are often expensive to create e) b and d Control methods in keeping the HSNI flu from spreading include: a) regular testing of chickens b) regular testing of pet birds c) regular disinfection of live poultry stalls d) a and c e) a, b, and 0 Which statement is false? a) pathogens will evolve to be highly virulent when transmission between hosts is easy b) altered behavior of transgenic animals will likely have little or no effect on natural populations c) GMOs will allow expansion of agriculture into new andfor fragile environments d) Kingdom Protista include all eukaryotes that are not plants, animals, or fungi e) parasite virulence reduces reproductive success of organisms Which statement is false? a) there is no evidence that GMOs may invade and out—compete wild strains in natural environments b) an example of a “technology protection system” is the production of sterile seeds 0) transgenic salmon show higher aggression and cannibalism compared to wild salmon when food availability is low 0!) hunger is largely a political problem 6) Trojan Gene Scenario- enhanced mating success but reduced adult viability BIOiSZHSF Page 8 of 18 39. The presence of gills in fish and human embryos is an example of: a) convergent evolution b) homology 0) analogy d) the genetic code e) overall animal similarities 40. Which statement is false? a) predators and prey act as agents of natural selection b) organisms living in symbiotic relationships must continually adjust to evolutionary changes c) pollution can cause intense selective pressure ' d) not all divergence of populations results in speciation e) Ebola virus is mildly virulent to humans 4i. Computer simulations for effect of immigrants on genetic drift reveal: a) a big effect from few immigrants b) little effect from few immigrants e) no effect from few immigrants d) a big effect from > 50 immigrants e) a big effect from > 100 immigrants 42. Which of the following is a species name? a) sapz'ens b) Sam c) diatom d) Ursm arctos e) U. maritimus 43. A level of classification of life that is more inclusive than the kingdom is: a) domain b) order c) class d) family e) phylum 44. Which statement/s is/are correct? a) intraspecific variation is studied by geneticists b) genetic drift is not a consequence of smali population size c) small populations often show inbreeding depression and loss of heterozygosity d) a and c e) all of the above 45. Ethical concerns regarding GMOs include: a) tampering with nature b) biotechnologists playing God 0) stress for animals d) genetic pollution B10152H5F Page 9 of 18 46. A lek is a) an open area where 2 or more males display b) a territory held by 2 or more females c) a territory held by a single male d) a territory held by 2 or more males e) a dispiay ground of a single female 47. Which conditions must be met before allopatric speciation can occur? i. isolation from gene flow ii. poiyploidy iii. differences in amount of genetic isolation iv. geographic separation of populations v. reproductive isolation a) i, ii, iii 1)) i, ii,v c) i, ii, iv (1) i, iv,v e) ail of the above 48. If a cross between 2 plants produces 10 different size classes, then this character’s mode of inheritance is a) pleiotropic b) epistasis c) polygenic d) innitiailelic e) a combination of all of the above 49. Where do flu viruses come from? a) domestic chickens b) waterfowl, ducks, shorebirds 0) mice, voles, moles , d) domestic ducks e) all of the above 50. A test cross: a) uses one parent that contributes only recessive alleles to its offspring b) allows to test the genetic contribution of the other parent 0) reveals whether parent is homozygous or heterozygous for the dominant allele d) a and c e) a, b, and c 51. What processes cause natural selection? a) predation and competition b) symbiosis 0) sexual selection d) kin selection c) all of the above BIOISZHSF Page 10 of l8 52. Many closely related species of marine invertebrates exist on either side of the isthmus of Panama. They probably resulted from: a) premating isolation b) isolation by distance c) postmating isolation d) gametic incompatibility e) allopatric speciation 53. Imprinting 3) always occurs between parents and offspring b) must occur during a critical time period in development c) is an encoding of simple information (1) occurs equally well with a variety of stimuli e) a and b 54. Which of the following statements are true: i. a lethal genotype has a selection coefficient of i ii. Huntington’s disease is due to a dominant allele iii. an organism exposes its phenotype to the environment iv. polygenic inheritance resembles blending v. all mutations are neutral or beneficial a) i, ii, ill b) ii, iii,v c) i, ii, iii, iv (1) ii, iii, iv,v c) all of the above 55. Some groups of species have given rise to large numbers of daughter species; this phenomenon is known as: a) sympatric speciation b) hybridization c) evolutionary radiation (1) gene flow e) evolution 56. Describe the following social acts between performer and recipient (— +) (4+) (+ -) a) selfish, cooperative, spiteful b) altruistic, competitive, selfish c) altruistic, cooperative, non-cooperative d) altruistic, cooperative, selfish e) selfish, mutualistic, altruistic 57. Costs of social living include: a) better opportunities to capture prey b) competition for food and mates 0) transmission of disease d) alarm calling may result in predation e) b, e, d BIOlSZHSF Page ll of 18 58. Ciassification systems have many uses. Which of the following is not a goal of biological classification? a) to depict convergent evolution 1)) to help remember organisms and their traits c) to clearly identify organisms being studied d) to provide predictive power 6) to clarify relationships among organisms 59. Which statement is false? a) escape of transgenes into wiid relatives is high risk for wind-pollinated outcrosser with nearby relatives b) altered behavior of transgenic animals could affect natural populations c) expansion of agriculture into new environments can negatively affect biodiversity d) evolution is the change in genetic structure over time e) eating genetically—modified fruit can change a person’s genes 60. Which of the following statements are true: i. survival affects fitness of both sexes ii. courtship and reproductive behavior of males and females differs iii. sexual selection is a form of natural selection iv. variation in reproductive success is low among males v. sexes differ in their reproductive investment 3) i, ii, iii b) i, ii, iii, and iv c) i, ii, iii, v d) ii, iii, iv, v c) all of the above 61. If a spider’s web building is a result of innate behavior then which statement is not true a) webs will be built perfectly the first time b) web building involves some learned behavior c) young spiders build their first webs without prior experience d) the building of webs is genetically determined e) web design and construction are species specific 62. An example of reciprocal altruism is a) two male deer competing for the same female b) wild dogs hunting together to catch prey 0) two chimps picking fleas off one another d) a parent feeding its young 6) a gull guarding its territory from other gulls 63. What is the pattern of inheritance for a rare dominant allele? a) every affected person has an affected parent b) unaffected mothers have affected sons and daughters who are carriers 0) unaffected parents can produce children that are affected (1) the dominant allele skips a generation e) none of the above BIOISQHSF Page 12 of 18 64. The modern polar bear species evolved from ancestral brown bear populations in southern Alaska that became separated by glaciers from bear populations in the rest of North America. This type of event is called: a) sympatric speciation in) speciation by vicariance c) ecological speciation d) temporal isolation e) aandb 65. The skin graft experiment on Cheetahs showed which result/s? i. sperm abnormalities were common ii. allografts and autografis were readily accepted iii. allografts and xenografis were accepted iv. xenografts were rejected v. the cheetah is a recently evolved species a) i, ii b) i, iii 0) i, iv d) ii, iv e) ii, iv,v 66. Which of the following statements about Mendelian genetics are false? a) a locus is a gene’s location on a chromosome 13) Mendel worked with true-breeding lines 0) individuals with the same phenotype can have different genotypes d) only 2 alleles exist for a given gene e) none of the above 67. Kin selection a) is often directed at random individuals 1)) increases the inclusive fitness of the altruistic individual 0) increases the direct fitness of the altruistic individual d) is not adaptive 6) often occurs between unrelated individuals 68. It was shown that female Afi‘ican long~tailed widowbird was more attracted to males with elongated tails. Why don’t the male widowbirds have even longer taiis? a) it was genetically impossible to create longer tails b) the shorter—tailed mates fought off the longer—tailed males 0) the cost of producing the longer tails was more than the benefit d) the longer—tailed males were sterile e) the gene for the very long tails is rare 69. Which statement/s is/are correct? a) habitat patches are not all equal in quality b) predation rates may be high along corridors c) sink patches receive immigrants from source patches d) extinction is a normal evolutionary process c) all of the above BIOlS2H5F Page 13 of 18 70. Which of the following is not true about polyploidy? a) many species of flowering plants arose by polyploidy b) polyploidy is common in animals and plants c) polyploidy can create new Species quickly if these individuals can self~fertilize d) polyploid siblings are capable of reproducing with one another 6) a and d Questions from the labs: 71. When natural selection favors a single extreme phenotype, and frequency of the allele coding for this phenotype increases over time, this is called a) disruptive selection 1)) balancing selection 0) stabilizing selection d) temporal selection e) none of the above 72. Fitness is defined as: a) the ability of an organism to cope with stressful environments b) the life-span of an organism c) the ability of an organism to produce viable offspring d) the ability of an organism to attract a mate c) none of the above 73. Sampling error is defined as: a) the relationship between population size and sample size b) the relationship between sample size and human error 0) the relationship between population size and human error d) a and b e) none of the above 74. The difference between an antiseptic and a disinfectant are: a) antiseptics can be taken internally and disinfectants cannot b) disinfectants kill microbial spores and antiseptics do not c) antiseptics can be applied to the skin and disinfectants cannot d) a and c e) none of the above 75. Which of the following is a similarity between natural and sexual selection? a) selection operates between individuals of different species b) individuals of the same sex affect each other's reproductive success c) members of one sex compete against other members of the same sex d) selection operates between individuals of the same species e) none of the above BIOIS2H5F Page 14 of 18 76. Which of the following could influence the operational sex ratio? a) fiVe percent of the males in a population are sexually immature. b) fifieen percent of the females in a population are pregnant. c) intraspecific sexual selection is occurring. (1) a and b e) none of the above 77. A low 213de finger ratio does not indicate which of the following: a) higher fertility b) more aggressive and aSSertive 0) higher musical and sports aptitude d) higher risk of heart disease e) none of the above 78. Phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) is not found in nature. The ability to taste correlates with the ability to taste bitter substance sueh as naturally occurring toxins. This ability to recognize bitter taste is advantageous because? a) there is no advantage b) protect early humans from eating poisonous plants 0) a disadvantage because it made certain individual less likely to use spices d) all of the above e) none of the above 79. Assuming Hardy—Weinberg Equilibrium, in a population of wild flowers homozygous recessive white flowers occur at a frequency of 0.16. What is the frequency of homozygous dominant red flowers? a) 0.32 b) 0.25 c) 0.36 d) 0.38 e) 0.16 80. There are five conditions that must be met for a population to be in Hardy—Weinberg Equilibrium. Which of the following are not condition of the Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium? a) mutation b) no gene flow c) genetic drift d) no selection e) a and c BIOlS2I-I5F Page I5 of 18 ANSWER 3 OUT OF THE 4 short answer questions (point form is acceptable} (Total 36 marks! Write or print clearly and only in the space provided gmake all your rough notes on the back! 1A. (6 marks) State (1-2 sentences for each) how the mechanism of evolution proposed by Lamarck differs from the mechanism proposed by Darwin and Wallace. 1B. (6 marks) Suppose 64% of a remote mountain village can taste phenylthiocarbamide (PTC) and must therefore have at least one copy of the dominant PTC taster allele. If this population conforms to Hardy— Weinberg expectations for this gene, what percentage of the population must be heterozygous and what percentage homozygous for this trait? B10152H5F Page I6 of 18 2A. (6 marks) What is meant by the term inbreeding depression (1 sentence). Inbreeding depression results from which 2 processes? 2B. (6 marks) Briefly (1—2 sentences) describe what causes malaria and sickle-cell anemia. What is the relationship between the two diseases (2-3 sentences)? BIOIS2H5F Page 17 of 18 3A. (6 marks) Define innate behavior (1 sentence) and state the 3 key characteristics of PAP. What is the adaptive significance of PAPS (I sentence)? What is meant by cognition (1 sentence) and what is the adaptive significance of learning (1 sentence)? 3B. (6 marks) What is Bacillus thuringiensis and how is it used in genetic engineering of crops (2-3 sentences)? List 3 environmental concerns of Bt cm s. BI0152H5F Page 18 of 18 4A. (6 marks) Why was the 1918 flu so virulent (2-3 sentences)? This flu data lends support to which hypotheses (2 sentences)? Briefly ( 1 01-2 sentences) state how Darwinian medicine differs from traditional medicine. 4B. (6 marks) How did Damin explain sexual selection (I sentence)? Compare sexual selection via male- male competition with sexual selection Via female choice. ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/11/2011 for the course BIO 152 taught by Professor Cordon during the Spring '07 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

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BIO152H-June 2008 - BIOISZHSF Page i of 18 NAME (PRINT):...

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