BIO152H-June 2009 - Page I of16 NAME (PRINT): LastlSurname...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–16. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 2
Background image of page 3

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 4
Background image of page 5

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 6
Background image of page 7

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 8
Background image of page 9

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 10
Background image of page 11

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 12
Background image of page 13

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 14
Background image of page 15

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Background image of page 16
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

Unformatted text preview: Page I of16 NAME (PRINT): LastlSurname First lGiven Name STUDENT #: SIGNATURE: UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MISSISSAUGA JUNE 2009 FINAL EXAMINATION B|O152H5F Introduction to Evolution and Evolutionary Genetics Dr. Maria Arts Duration - 3 hours Aids: Calculators You may be charged with an academic chance for possessing the following items during the writing of an exam unless othenivise specified: any unauthorized aids, including but not limited to calculators, cell phones, pagers, wristwatch calculators, personal digital assistants (PD/is), iPods, MP3 players, or any other device. it any of these items are in your possession in the area of your desk, please turn them off and put them with your belongings at the front of the room before the examination begins. A penalty may be imposed if any of these items are kept with you during the writing of your exam. Please note, students are NOT allowed to petition to RE-WRITE a final examination This examination consists of 9Q multiple choice questions (total of 90 marks) and 6 snort—answer questions (total of 30 marks), When answering snort answers, be clear and specific and follow the instructions for maximum number of sentences allowed; extra material will not be read. Good luck! — — — - — - — Total Marks: 120 Weighting: 40% of final course grade Question # 4 Question # 5 Question it 6 Page 2 of 16 Multiple choice questions (90 marks) 1. Most causes of speciation are relatively slow, in that they may take many generations of organisms to see changes, except: A) polyploidy B) vicariance C) colonization D) naturai selection 2. Currently the only predators of Galapagos marine iguanas are Galapagos hawks. Iguana body size is not correlated with risk of hawk predation, although small iguanas can sprint faster than large iguanas. If predators (e.g., cats) that preferath catch and eat slower iguanas are introduced to the island, iguana body size is likely to in the absence of other factors; the iguanas would then be under __ selection. A) increase; directionai B) increase; disruptive C) decrease; directional D) decrease; stabilizing E) stay the same; stabilizing 3. In testing a hypothesis that "territorial defense in European robins is a fixed action pattern that is released by the sight of orange feathers," researchers found that robins defended their territory by attacking anything that was of similar size and had an orange patch. How would you show that it was indeed color that initiated the defense responses? A) repeat the experiment using iive specimens. B) repeat the experiment using other shapes C) repeat the experiment removing the orange patch D) repeat the experiment with giant specimens 4. Which statement is false? A) pathogens will evolve to be low in virulence when transmission between hosts is easy B) altered behavior of transgenic animals will likely have large effects on natural populations C) GMO’s will allow expansion of agricuiture into new and/or fragiie environments D) Kingdom Protista include ail eukaryotes that are not piants, animals, or fungi B) parasite virulence reduces reproductive success of animais and plants 5. Male turkeys have a snood, which is a flap of skin that hangs across their beak. Snood length is negativeiy correiated with parasite load (e.g., males with longer snoods have fewer parasites), and females prefer to mate with long-snooded maies. This is an example of A) the fundamental asymmetry of sex B) sexuai selection via female choice C) sexuai selection via male—male competition D) a genetic marker 6. The domestic dog, red fox, and wolf belong to the family Canidae. The dog is Canisfamh'r'aris, the red fox is Wipes wipes, and the wolf is Cain‘s lupus. A) all three canids are in different genera B) all three canids are in different classes C) the red fox is in the same family, but different genus than wolves and dogs D) all three beiong to the same genera but are different species B) the wolf is in the same family, but different genus than dogs and red foxes 7. Which one of the following exampies best illustrates classical conditioning? A) geese following the first thing they see upon hatching B) cats running into the kitchen when they hear a food can being opened C) birds hatching in isolation and singing their species—specific song D) cats seeing a mouse and chasing it Page 3 of 16 8. Which statement/s about corridors is/are incorrect? A) result in large edge effects B) do little to increase gene flow C) may be a route for disease transmission D) may be a route for predator travel E) b and c Use the following information when answering questions 9 and It}. Two populations of birds with somewhat different coloration live on opposite sides of a peninsula. The habitat between the populations is not suitable for these birds. When birds from the two populations are brought together, they produce young whose appearance is intermediate between the two parents. These offspring will breed with each other or with birds from either parent population, and all offspring of these pairings appear intermediate to various degrees. 9. What keeps the two populations separate? A) temporal reproductive isolation B) lack of hybrid viability C) gametic barrier D) spatial reproductive isolation E) behavioral reproductive isolation to. The two popuiations are . A) different subspecies, under the morphospecies concept B) different species. under the biological species concept C) different species, under the phylogenetic species concept D) all of the above I l. Which of the following is the most predictable outcome of increased gene flow between two populations? A) decreased genetic difference between the two populations B) higher average fitness in both populations C) increased genetic difference between the two populations D) lower average fitness in both populations E) increased genetic drift 12. Three populations of crickets look very similar, but the males have courtship songs that sound different. What function would this difference in song likely serve if the populations came in contact? A) a prezygotlc isolating mechanism B) a postzygotic isolating mechanism C) decrease aggression D) territoriality 13. A storm brings two formerly separated populations of beetles together. They look very similar. Under the biological species concept, which of the following show that the 2 populations are different species? A) one population breeds in spring, the other in fall. B) males of the two populations have different flight patterns in courtship C) when individuals from the two populations mate with each other in the laboratory, the eggs fail to hatch D) all of the above 13) none of the above 14. Which of the following is incorrectly matched ? A) Wilson....the loss of biodiversity is the most important process of environmental change B) Linnaeus... father of taxonomy C) Dobzhansky. . .nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution D) Lamarck...first used the term evolution E) none ofthe above Page 4 of 16 15. Control methods in keeping the HSNl flu from spreading include: A) regular testing of chickens B) regular testing of pet birds C) regular disinfection of live poultry stalls D) a and c E) a, b, and c to. Which statement is false? A) Ebola virus is mildly virulent to humans B) organisms living in symbiotic relationships must continually adjust to evolutionary changes C) pollution can cause intense selective pressure D) not all divergence of populations results in speciation E) predators and prey act as agents of natural selection l7. The Dunkers are a religious group that moved from Germany to Pennsylvania in the inidwl700s. They do not marry with members outside their own immediate community. Today, the Dunkers are genetically unique and differ in gene frequencies, at many loci, from all other populations including those in their original homeland. Which of the following likely explains the genetic uniqueness of this population? A) population bottleneck and Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium B) heterozygote advantage and stabilizing selection C) sexual selection and inbreeding depression D) mutation and natural selection - E) founder effect and genetic drift l8. You observe a species of bird that, upon hatching, has contact with its parents only while being fed. You also never hear the parents sing during the feeding process. What would you propose about song learning in this species of bird? A) song learning in this species is most likely learned B) song learning in this species is most likely innate C) this species does not hear D) the period of imprinting is likely later in the bird's life 19. Which ofthe following is false? A) taxonomy is the study ofbiological diversity and its evolution B) long tails on birds is evidence of sexual selection C) mutation is the ultimate source of all genetic variation D) sexual recombination increases variation E) on a lek females observe the displays of males, but not all males get an opportunity to breed 20. Sexual selection: A) shows non-random mating B) results in a trade-off between mating success and survival C) function solely to enhance mating success D) exaggerated traits are often a result of female choice E) all of the above 2i. House finches were found only in western North America until 1939, when a few individuals were released in New York City. These individuals established a breeding population and gradually expanded their range. The western population also expanded its range somewhat eastward, and the two populations have recently come in contact. if the two forms were unable to interbreed when their expanding ranges meet, what would this situation illustrate? A) vicariance B) allopolyploidy C) autopolyploidy D) allopatric speciation E) sympatric speciation Page 5 of 16 22. Bt corn can affect non-target organisms, including A) monarch butterflies B) wild bees C) domesticated bees D) decomposers E) all of the above 23. Which one of the following predictions follows from the sexual selection hypothesis for why giraffes have long necks? A) in contests over females, the best-nourished male should always, or almost always, win B) in contests over females, the mate with the longest neck should have an advantage over other males C) in natural populations, female neck length should decline over time. D) young males that are given extra amounts of high-quality food should grow particularly long necks 24. Wikelski and Romero (2003) found that large marine iguanas had higher reproductive success than smaller iguanas did. However, the large iguanas were generally in poor body condition because they could not eat enough; at higher temperatures their foraging efficiency improved, allowing them to eat more. Thus, Wikelski and Romero'hypothesize that iguana size will as global warming gradually increases air and water temperatures in the Galapagos islands. A) increase B) decrease C) stay the same D) vary more 25. "Golden rice” is golden because it is rich in: A) vitamin D B) vitamin C C) protein D) fibre E) none of the above 26. Recail the chili pepper experiment that tested whether capsaiein acts as a deterrent to predators. What eating habits were predicted for the curve—billed thrasher—a known seed disperser? A) the thrasher was predicted to eat both mild and hot chilies B) the thrasher was predicted to eat only the mild chilies C) the thrasher was predicted to eat only the hot chilies D) the thrasher was predicted to not eat any of the chilies 27. Which statement is false? A) there is no evidence that GMO’S may invade and Out—compete wild strains in natural environments B)an example of a “technology protection system” is the production of sterile seeds C) transgenic salmon show higher aggression and cannibalism compared to wild saimon when food is scarce D) hunger is largely a political problem E) Trojan Gene Scenario- enhanced mating success but reduced adult viability 28. You read that the membrane protein involved in cystic fibrosis confers resistance to typhoid fever. imagine that a drug—resistant form of typhoid fever becomes common worldwide, killing a significant proportion of the human population over a period of several decades. Which of the following would you expect to observe in the world population during this period? A) no change in the frequency of cystic fibrosis B) decrease in the frequency of cystic fibrosis C) increase in the frequency of cystic fibrosis D) no change in the frequency of typhoid fever Page 6 of16 29. The common cdibie frog of Europe is a hybrid between two species, Rana lessonae and Rana ridibrmda. The hybrids were first described in 1758 and have a wide distribution, from France across central Europe to Russia. Both male and female hybrids exist, but when they mate among themselves, they are rarely sHCCessful in producing offspring. What can you infer from this information? A) postzygotic isolation exists between the two frog species B) prezygotic isolation exists between the two frog species C) these two species are likely in the process of fusing back into one species D) the hybrids form a separate species under the biological species concept 30. Which of the foilowing is a powerful way to test a hypothesis? A) incorporate the hypothesis into a more general theory 8) formulate a competing or alternative hypothesis C) formulate a null hypothesis D) perform an experiment that tests a prediction that foilows from the hypothesis 3 1. Which statements are true? i. resurrecting the E9! 8 flu will help scientists better understand virulence of viruses ii. transgenic crops on the market include: com, squash, canola, soybeans, cotton iii. science provides absolute truth iv. crops that make Bt may speed up the evolution of pesticide resistance in insects v. kin selection may be favored if it increases the survivai of genetically-related organisms A) i, ii, iii B) i, iii, iv C) i, ii, iv, v D) iii, iv, v E) all of the above 32. You see young spiders hatch from eggs, and within 5 hours, they are dispersing far from their parents and forming webs. What can you hypothesize about their behavior? A) web-building is innate since there is no parentai involvement B) web-building is learned by observation C) web-building is a random behavior D) web-buiiding is an inflexible behavior E) C and D 33. Which of the following can be considered a transgenic organism? A) a human given a corrected human blood-clotting gene 8) a hamster with cat hemoglobin genes C) an organism producing both egg and sperm D) a fern grown in cell culture from a fern root ceil E) a North Atlantic fish with cold-tolerance genes 34. A researcher notices that in a certain moth species, some femaies prefer to feed and lay eggs on domesticated solanaceous plants iike potatoes and tomatoes. Other females prefer to feed and lay eggs on wild solanaceous plants iike Datura. Both male and female moths primarily use scent to find these plants from afar. Females tend to mate where they feed, and the researcher finds a genetic basis for scent preference in these moths. Based on the above information, what might be occurring in this moth species? A) prezygotic isolation B) divergence due to vicariance C) postzygotic isolation D) polyploidization E) none of the above Page 7 of16 35. The same basic internai organs (kidneys, stomach, heart, lungs) are found in frogs, birds, snakes and rodents. This is primarily an exampie of A) structural homology B) developmental homology C) genetic correlation D) inheritance of acquired characteristics 36. Computer simulations for effect of immigrants on genetic drift reveal: A) a big effect from few immigrants B) little effect from few immigrants C) no effect from few immigrants D) a big effect from > 50 immigrants E) a big effect from > EGO immigrants 37. Which statement/s is/are incorrect? A) intraspecific variation is studied by geneticists B) genetic drift is not a consequence of small population size C) small populations often show inbreeding depression and increase in heterozygosity D) small populations often exhibit fixation of deleterious alleles E) a and b 38. in the Linnaean classification system, which taxon would generally incinde the largest number of species? A) family 8) phylum C) order D) genus 39. Which of the following does not tend to promote speciation? A) the founder effect B) gene flow C) natural selection D) polyploidy 40. You observe that by flashing a small light in a particular sequence, you can attract male fireflies of a certain species. You begin to think how this signal may be used against these males. Which of the hypotheses seems to be the most logical? A) this particular signal will be used commoniy by other firefly species to Euro males and prey on them B) this particular signal will be used only by this species of firefly C) this particular signai will be used widely by males of this species in territorial disputes D) this particular signal will be used rarely by other firefly species as a way to lure males and prey on them 4]. If behavior is under partial genetic control: A) no variability in behavior will be seen B) it is not subject to naturai selection C) it may be modified by experience D) it is acquired only through learning E) it will be species-specific 42. Which statement about herbicide toierance is/are incorrect? A) post emergence spraying of herbicide—resistant crops will kill the crops B) herbicide-resistant crops are of high economic value to the agribusiness industry C) transgcnes for herbicide tolerance could result in greater reiiance on herbicides D) herbicide tolerance could spread to weed populations E) a and d Page 8 01°16 43. Parasitic species tend to have simple morphologies. Which of the foliowing statements best expiains this observation? A) parasites are lower organisms, and this is why they have simple morphologies B) parasites do not live long enough to inherit acquired characteristics C) simple morphologies have been naturally selected for in most parasites D) parasites have not yet had time to progress, because they are young evolutionarily 44. Which of the following is likely a reason why evolutionary radiation would occur on islands? A) there are many more species on islands 8) islands may have fewer animal and plant groups and thus provide more ecological opportunities C) islands tend to have more favourable habitats than continents because they are moderated by the ocean D) organisms can disperse easily across oceans E) isiands often have more diverse habitats than continents 45. Scientists isolate cells in various phases of the cell cycle. They find a group of cells that have 1% times more DNA than do Gl phase cells. The cells of this group are in A) cytokinesis B) G2 phase C) G 1 phase B) S phase B) M phase 46. In red—winged blackbirds, which of the following stimuii elicited the greatest territorial defense response? A) playing a recording of a blackbird call in the territory B) presenting a modei of a male in the territory C) presenting both the model and playing the recording D) all of the above elicited equal responses 47. Homologous chromosomes A) are identical 8) carry information for the same traits C) carry the same alleles D) align on the metaphase plate in meiosis ll E) are homozygous 48. Which of the following statementls islare false? A) vieariance isolates populations B) a polyphyietic group includes the ancestral group and all its descendents C) founder effects lead to sympatric speciation D) species are independent evolutionary units E) b and c 49. Which of the foiiowing statements are true? i) theories are more comprehensive than hypotheses ii) a control group serves to increase the sample size of the experiment iii) family is more inclusive than class . iv) a hypothesis is a tentative explanation or educated guess v) the common cold is usually not very virulent A) iv, v B) i, ii, iv C) i, iii, iv D) i, iv, v E) all of the above Page 9 of 16 50. What was the main reason the honeybees switched fi‘om the "round dance" to the "waggle dance"? A) the ratio of females to males in the hive shifted B) the preferred food source was farther away C) the original food source was exhausted D) an intruder approached the hive 5] . The egg of a fruit fly has 4 chromosomes. How many chromosomes are in a somatic celi of a fruit fly? A) 4 B) 2 C) 8 D) 16 52. Learning has the most influence on behavior when A) making mistakes does not result in death B) animals have parents or other sources to learn from C) animals have enormous cognitive ability D) making mistakes does not resuit in death, and when animals have parents to learn from E) animals have parents or other sources to learn from, and when animals have enormous cognitive ability 53. How are two different species most likely to evolve from one ancestral species? A) sympatrically, by a point mutation affecting morphology or behavior 8) atlopatrically, afier the ancestral species has split into two populations C) phylogenetically, due to heterozygote advantage in hybrids D) developmentally, due to common ancestry 54. The variation among offspring, and the fact that they are genetically different from their parents, is due to which of the following? A) random alignment of homologues during meiosis l B) crossing over C) random proCess of fertilization D) ail of the above contribute to genetic variability in sexual reproduction 55. A man has extra digits (six fingers on each hand and six toes on each foot). His wife and their daughter have a normal number of digits. Having extra digits is a dominant trait. The couple's second child has extra digits. What is the probability that their next (third) child will have extra digits? A) it? B) 1H6 C) 1/8 n) 3/4 B) 9/16 56. For a biologist studying a small fish population in the lab. which Hardy-Weinberg condition is easiest to meet? A) no selection B) no genetic drift C) no gene flow D) no mutation E) random mating 57. The recognition and manipulation of facts about the world is termed A) cognition 8) learning C) imprinting D) conditioning Page 10 oflo 58. The snake family Typhlopidae consists of small, burrowing species with vestigiai eyes. They are found in Australia, sub-Saharan Africa, india and some adjacent areas, and South America. What is the most likely explanation for this distribution? A) rafting to the different continents from the point of origin on one of these continents B) convergent evolution in the different regions C) origin on Gondwana followed by continental drift and some range expansion D) all of the above E) none of the above 59. Mutation is the only evolutionary mechanism that A) does little to change allele frequencies on its own B) always causes decreased fitness C) is more important in eukalyotes than in prokaryotes D) is not mentioned by the Hardy-Weinberg model B) has no effect on genetic variation 60. Claytom‘a virgim'ca- is a woodland spring herb with flowers that vary from white to pale pink to bright pink. Sings prefer to eat pink—flowering over white-flowering plants (due to chemical differences between the two), and plants experiencing severe herbivory were more likely to die. The bees that pollinate this plant prefer also prefer pink to white flowers, so that Claytonia with pink flowers have greater relative fruit set than Ciaytonia with white flowers. A researcher observes that the percentage of different flower colors remains stable in the study population from year to year. If the researcher removes all slugs from the study population, what do you expect to happen to the distribution of flower colors in the population over time? A) the percentage of pink flowers should increase over time B) the percentage of white flowers should increase over time C) the distribution of flower colors should not change D) the distribution of flower colors should randomly fluctuate over time 6]. Which of the following is incorrectly matched? A) polyploidy.“common in animals B) polyploidy. ..can lead to reproductive isolation C) allopolyploidy...contain chromosomes from 2 different species D) allopolyploidy. ..mutation results in doubling of chromosomes E) A and D 62. The science of naming organisms is called: A) biogeography B) zoogeography C) phylogeny D) taxonomy E) species nomenciature 63. The diploid number of a roundworm species is 4. You have a male and a female roundworm that are planning a family. Assuming there is no crossover, and random segregation of homologues during meiosis, how many different possible combinations of chromosomes might there be in the offspring? A) 4 s) s C) l6 D) 64 64. Which statement is false? A) the 19l 8 influenza was so widespread that everyone on earth breathed in the virus B) if you are vaccinated against the flu, you will not catch a flu that year C) flus that we catch today likely are descendents of the 1918 influenza D) poultry markets often act as a viral inoculation center E) highly virulent influenza can easily be spread by means of jet travel Page 11 of 16 65. Some groups of species have given rise to large numbers of daughter species; a phenomenon known as: A) sympatric speciation B) hybridization C) evolutionary radiation D) gene flow E) evolution 66. Which of the foliowing describes the most liker order of events in speciation? A) genetic drift, genetic isolation, divergence B) genetic isoiation, divergence, genetic drift C) divergence, genetic drift, genetic isolation D) divergence, genetic isolation, genetic drift E) genetic isolation, genetic drift, divergence 67. Which of the foilowing statements about imprinting is false? A) imprinting oniy occurs on a specific coior/shape B) imprinting is fast and irreversibie C) imprinting only occurs during a critical period D) imprinting is a type of learning 68. Where do flu viruses come fi'om? A) domestic chickens B) waterfowi, ducks, shorebircis C) mice, voles, moles D) domestic ducks i3) aii of the above 69. Which statement is false? A) escape of transgenes into wild reiatives is high risk for wind-poliinated outcrosser with nearby relatives B) altered behavior of transgenic animals couid affect natural populations C) evolution is the change in genetic structure over time D) expansion of agriculture into new environments \vili negatively affect biodiversity E.) transgenic organisms are not under the influence of natural selection 70. The biological classification system used today is referred to as: A) dichotomous taxonomy B) dichotomous nomenclature C) binomial nomenclature D) binomial taxonomy E) taxonomy 7 1. Which of the foliowing could be a vicariance event for species in that habitat? A) the levei of water in a take recedes, creating two lakes where there used to be one B) some insects get blown in a storm to a new mountain range, where they iay eggs C) radiation near Chernobyl increases mutation rate, causing an increase in autopolypoiidy D) all of the above could be vicarianee events for species in that habitat 72. in tigers, a receSSive alleie causes a white tiger (absence of fur pigmentation). If two phenotypically normal tigers that are heterozygous at this locus are mated, what percentageof their offspring is expected to be white? A) 25% B) 50% C) about 66% D) about 90% E) 75% Page 12 of 16 73. Which statement is false? A) application of evolutionary principles to the problems of pathogen virulence focuses on the question "why" a B) with high host densities, host death doesn't matter because transmission is still likely C) non-pathogenic bacteria will not become pathogenic because they do not reproduce sexually D) the vector for cholera transmission is water E) none of the above 74. Imprinting A) always occurs between parents and offspring B) must occur during a critical time period in development C) is an encoding of simple information D) occurs equally well with a variety of stimuli E) a and b 75. BI can be considered environmentally beneficiai because A) less spraying ofcrops ' B) less contamination of soil and water C) it is fairly specific D) does not harm humans i3) all of the above 76. Any process in which a signal from one individual modifies the behavior of a recipient individual is termed A) cognition B) communication C) reflex D) perception E) behavior 77. Which of the following are incorrectly matched? A) fiu...caused by a pathogenic bacteria B) viruses...high mutation rates C) domestic birds...highly susceptible to avian flu D) HSN l...all outbreaks were highly pathogenic E) none of the above 78. Environmental concerns of planting transgenic crops such as golden rice A) water-intensive agriculture B) irrigation and dams needed C) impact on soil organisms unknown D) A and B E) all of the above 79. it is rather easy to understand why relatives help each other in the animal kingdom; they share some of the same genes, and some self-sacrificing behavior wili help the greater sum of their genes. What would be a reason for self—sacrificing behavior to have evolved in animals that are unrelated? A) this behavior might elicit a benefit at some future point in time B) this behavior might have aided groups of unrelated animals C) this behavior might have arisen due to genetic drift D) A and B E) A and C Page 13 of 16 80. A level ofclassitication of life that is more inclusive than the kingdom is: A) domain B) order C) class D) family E) phylum In 1983 a population of dark-eyed junco birds became established on the campus of the University of California, San Diego (UCSD), which is located many miles from thejunco's normal habitat in the mixed- coniferous temperate forests in the mountains. Juncos have white outer tail feathers that the males display during aggressive interactions and during courtship displays. Males with more white in their tall are more likely to win aggressive interactions, and females prefer to mate with males with more white in their tails. Females have less white in their tails than do males, and display it less often. (Pamela 3. Yeh. 2004. Rapid evolution of a sexually selected trait following population establishment in a novel habitat. Evolution 58[l]: l 66—74.) 8]. Based on the information given above, which of the following types of selection was most likely initially involved in the evolution of white outer tail feathers in juncos? A) directional selection 13) stabilizing selection C) disruptive selection D) sexual selection 82. The UCSD campus malejunco population tails were, on average, 36% white. whereas the tails of males from nearby mountain populations averaged 40_45% white. If this observed trait dilference were due to a difference in the original colonizing population, it would be due to A) disruptive selection. B) sexual selection C) sexual dimorphism D) a genetic bottleneck E) founder effect 83. The UCSD campus male junco popuiation tails are about 36% white, whereas the tails of males from nearby mountain populations are about 40-45% white. The founding stock of UCSD birds was likely from the nearby mountain populations because some of those birds overwinter on the UCSD campus each year. Population sizes on the UCSD campus have been reasonably large, and there are significant habitat differences between the UCSD campus and the mountain coniferous forests; UCSD campus has a more open environment (making birds more visible) and a lowerjunco density (decreasing intraspecific competition) than that in the mountain forests. Given this information, which of the following evolutionary mechanisms do you think is most likely responsible for the difference between the UCSD and mountain populations? A) natural Selection B) inbreeding C) genetic drift D) gene flow E) mutation 84. Which statement/s is/are false? A) Lamarck’s mechanism to explain evolution was the inheritance of acquired characteristics B) classifying organisms is based on many lines of evidence C) analogous structures resemble one another as a result of parallel evolution D) current research continues to support Darwin’s Theory of Evolution E) none of the above _ Page 14 of 16 85. Which of the following statements regarding extinction is false? A) only certain species are immune from extinction B) species are vanishing today faster than any other time in earth’s history C) extinctions can occur even when humans don‘t interfere D) extinctions can be caused directly or indirectly by humans 8) extinction is Forever 86. The biological species concept can be applied to dinosaurs. A) true B) false 87. Inbreeding can be considered an evolutionary mechanism. A) true B) false 88. Many recessive alleles represent loss-of-function mutations. A) true B) false 89. Genetic drift usually reduees average fitness. A) true 8) false 90. In nature, selection occurs in the context of fitness trade—offs. A) true B) false Page 15 0f16 Short answer questions (30 marks) IA. (4 marks) Explain how isolation and divergence are occurring in soapbcrry bugs, even though populations occupy the same geographic area (2 sentences). Will the soapberry bugs become different species (I sentence)? IB. (1 mark) Of the 4 evolutionary processes (mutation, gene flow, genetic drift, and selection), which two are most important in causing this event. 2. (5 marks) Which of the following isolating mechanisms are prezygotic and which are postzygotic? l. iand iguana eggs can‘ t be fertilized by marine iguana sperm 2. mules are sterile 3. in a forest, one beetle species lives on oaks, and another beetie species iives on pines 4, in cioseiy related bird species, males sing different courtship songs 5, hybrid seeds from pollination of one yucca by another yucca species are aborted Prezygotic are: Postzygotic are: 3A. (3 marks) What causes myxomatosis and how is it transmitted (2-3 sentences)? 3B. (4 marks) What caused the evolution oflower virulence of the disease (3 sentences)? Page 16 of 16 4. (3 marks) Briefly explain what Bt transgenic crops are and how the Bt toxin works (3 sentences). 5. (5 marks) Asymmetry of sex is characteristic of almost all sexual species and has two important consequences in terms of fitness; briefly describe them (2 sentences for each). 6. (5 marks) List the 5 conditions that must occur in order for the Hardy-Weinberg principle to accurately determine population allele frequencies? 1. ...
View Full Document

This note was uploaded on 12/11/2011 for the course BIO 152 taught by Professor Cordon during the Spring '07 term at University of Toronto- Toronto.

Page1 / 16

BIO152H-June 2009 - Page I of16 NAME (PRINT): LastlSurname...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 16. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online