ANT102H-Dec 2009 - UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MISSISSAUGA...

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Unformatted text preview: UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MISSISSAUGA DECEMBER 2009 FINAL EXAMINATION ANTIOZHSF Introduction to Sociocultural and Linguistic Anthropology Instructors: Todd Sanders and Jennifer Jackson Duration — 2 hours Aids: None The University of Toronto Mississauga and you, as a student, share a commitment to academic integrity. You are reminded that you may be charged with an academic offence for possessng any unauthorized aids during the writing of an exam, including but not limited to any electronic devices with storage, such as cell phones, pagers, personal digital assistants (PDAs), iPods, and MP3 players. Unauthorized calculators and notes are also not permitted. Do not have any of these items in your possession in the area of your desk. Please turn the electronics off and put ail unauthorized aids with your belongings at the front of the room before the examination begins. If any of these items are kept with you during the writing of your exam, you may be charged with an academic offence. A typical penalty may cause you to fail the course. Please note, you CANNOT petition to RE-WRITE an examination once you have begun writing. Instructions for the exam: Please read each question carefiilly and choose the letter that best corresponds to the correct answer. Fill in the corresponding bubble on your scantron sheet. Make ceitain you are filling in the answer on the numbered row that matches the number of the question. There are a total of 10 pages. TOTAL MARKS: There are 40 questions worth 2.5 marks each. 1. What is the difference between language acquisition theOries and language socialization theories? A. Language socialization is a theory about language learning that claims to learn a language involves engaging in communication within the cultural system. It also suggests that a cultural system shapes how that language is engaged. B. Language acquisition is a theory that suggests ideologies of language matter more than knowledge of a language’s words and grammatical rules. C. Language socialization is a theory that explains how all social animals except human beings learn how to communicate in social groups D. Language acquisition is a theory about language learning that emphasizes language competency comes by way of learning the system of language and not necessarily the cultural system of which it is a part. B. A and D 2. Learning a language includes everything but which capacity: A. The ability to use material symbols ‘ B. The ability to make and use intentionally defined tools with a history C. The ability to speak, listen, and hear D. The ability to create institutions E. The ability to model behavior 3. If one person makes another person uncomfortable because sfhe is standing too close while speaking, what word might best describe their difference? A. One person is rude and the other polite. B. The person made uncomfortable has a social phobia. C. Each person has conflicting interactional ethos. D. Each person code switches in different ways. E. C and D 4. The Monty Python skit concerning the Hungarian dictionary user in a tobacco shop gives us evidence against what notion: A. People from different countries have different interactional ethos. B. Teach people grammar, give them a dictionary, and they’ll communicate. C. Worldview allows people to communicate regardless of whether or not they use the correct words. ' D. Sometimes it’s not language that allows us to communicate but the non-verbal E. cues and gestures associated with it. A and C 5. What do Hockett’s Design Features describe? A. Qualities of communication that are unique to humans. B. Qualities of communication that are basic to language. C. Qualities of communication that are parsed along a continuum of animal species. D. A and B E. A and C 6. Which characteristics of language listed below are NOT a part of Hockett’s Design Features? A. Repair B. Total feedback C. Specialization D. Discreteness E. Semanticity 7. How might language be described? A. A way to meaningful orient and experience the world with others? B. A realm of activity that says something about who we are, who we think we should be, who we think others are and should be more than it says anything about what its words are actually saying? C. A tool of communication that all humans possess? D. A complex, symbolic system of communication that even other social animals possess? ' E. A, B, and C 8. What does syntax describe in grammar? A. The word order in a sentence. B. The sound patterns in a language. C. Grammatical rules in a language. D. Word meaning. E. A and D 9. What does the Turing Test suggest about language? A. That knowing a language means simply to be competent in its vocabulary and grammar. B. That language is far more complex than any computer can ever model because the model doesn’t live in a whimsical, unpredicatble environment the way human linguistic interaction does. C. That knowing a language is more than just competence in its words and rules; it also requires a knowledge of context, interactional ethos, and styles of performance D. Aand B E. B and C 10. What do each of these statements best speak to in language? Child’s Stool Great for Use in Garden Stud Tires Out Stiff Opposition Expected to Casketiess Funeral Plan Drunk Gets Nine Months in Violin Case Iraqi Head Seeks Arms Queen Mary Scraped Bottom Columnist Gets Urologist in Trouble with His Peers A. B. C. D. E. They are examples of denotation. They are examples of co-reference. They are examples'of connotation. They are examples of indexicality. C and D 11. What is the difference between referential meaning and semiotic meaning (or social meaning) in a statement that is thought to be a lie? A. B. C. D. E. The referntial meaning is that the statement is a lie while the semiotic meaning comes from the fact that the lie was told to save face or to save a relationship. The semiotic meaning is that the statement is a lie While the referential meaning comes from the fact that the lie was told to save face or to save a relationship. There is no difference in this case. A lie is a lie. It depends on what kind of lie was told, one that can be proven and one that cannot be proven. A and D 12. According to Bauman, when does lying matter less in storytelling? A. B. C. D. B. When belief is secondary to performance When social meaning is secondary to semantic meaning As a matter of mediating social reiations A and C B and C 13. The combined use of vocalization, body movements, facial expression, touch, and olfactory stimuli speak to what complex ability in higher primate communication? meow» . Naming Identifying Muitimodaiity . Indicating Describing 14. Primates communicate feelings, intentions, rivalries, status but they rarely communicate what? A. B. Names Descriptions of past events C. About something D. E. A and C All of the above 15. What other forms of value (meaning) are exchanged through linguistic ' interaction? A. B. C. D. E. Economic Aesthetic Violence Honor All of the above 16. Interactional ethos is A. F1153 0P3 Our expectations and needs for a jointly created/corroborated orientation, such that each of us ratifies the other's demeanor with our own. Belief in how oneself and others should act. A way of measuring language competency and ability to communicate at a high level. The non—verbal cues on which we base our shared interaction. AandD 17. What is the difference between an animator and an author, according to Erving Goffman? A. B. C. D. E. An animator has to also be the author because the two cannot be separated. An animator is not aiways the person who authored the words he utters. An author is responsible for his words, but an animator is not An animator is always responsible for the words, regardless of who authored them. B and D 18. How can expressive lying in hound dog trades and offering performances of ' wedding poetry both he forms of an honorable presentation of self? A. B. £116 In both situations, the economic value far outweighs the honor and making the most money from a trade or a poem is what is most honorable In both situations, the social priority is the knowledgerequired in the performance and the aesthetic of the performance and not the referential details of lies or poetry Both situations are considered social games and to be able to play the game is to honor the social relations in the event, and therefore, oneself. .BandC There is no likeness between these two acts. There is no honor in lying whereas the performance of wedding poetry honors the newlywed couple, and in turn, yourself as someone who gave them your blessing. 19. Why is having any sense of personal identity and a presentation of that identity through language not an individual but social enterprise? pom? B. We only know ourselves through relationships. We have no identity, no subjectivity without relationships. We only emerge as selves through interactions in relationships. Performance of self is more about building and maintaining relationships than it is to project an image of one’s self simply All of the above. 20. How might language and identity be connected? A. B. To speak and write in certain ways point to something undeniable about you, where you are from, and how intelligent you are. People hear the way a person talks and make evaluations about who that person is, what they stand for, their potential, and whether 01' not they are a good or bad person. C. Ways of talking and writing are bound up with social biography, are in association with group values and norms, and often are the means through which identity stereotypes are made and enforced. D. Speaking and writing say something more about who a person is than what they are trying to say; for this, they play a role in whether or not someone is allowed access to participate in certain jobs, in politics, in relationships across groups, for example. E. B, C, D 21. In the context of econ—hound trading in Canton, lying is: A. An important skill that traders use to demonstrate they are part of a community of traders. B. A skill that traders use to dupe 1nuyers into buying bad dogs. C. A skill traders use to convince others to buy from or trade with them. D. Undermining the historic American spirit of the First Monday at Canton tradition. E. A and C. 22. Face, according to Erving Goffman, describes our A. Expectations and needs f0r a jointly created/corroborated orientation, such that each of us ratifies the other‘s demeanor with our own. Belief in how oneself and others should act. A way of measuring language competency and ability to communicate at a high level. . The non-verbal cues on which we base our shared interaction. A and D 23. offman's participation framework: . Explains the fixed roles that people have in conversation. Does not apply when people are acting in official or institutional capacities (as bosses, presidents, etc.) Shows how people's roles in interaction are always relative to the roles of others present and can shift at any time. Offers criteria for evaluating the truth and authenticity of a particular utterance. o w>e we on .U 24. In the concert described in "Sultans of Spin", an organizer asks people not to clap during the performance. If this announcement had not been made: A. As members of the world music community, people would have known not to clap. B. As members of the tarab music community, people would have known to clap and shout. C. The musicians would not have performed, since they would not have had the assurance their sacred practice would be properly received. D. The musicians would have been upset, since people might have clapped and shouted. E. A and B 25. Displacement in bee communication describes what? A. E. 26. D. E. _ 27. B. C. D. E. The ability to triangulate between the location of the bee himself, the nest, and the sun. An inability to locate the nest once the sun has set. The ability to ‘talk’ about referents that are removed in time and space. The place where the bee does the “dance” in relation to the pace and vigor with which he does the dance A and C Which is an example of Markedness? A. B. C. All men are created equally. The student should read all work that he has been assigned. WNBA (Women’s National Basketball Association) LPGA (Lady’s Professional Golf Association. . One should not bring exam aids into the classroom during the assigned time of the exam. B and D What example(s) most point(s) to being socialized as a boy or a girl? A. Ordering a sexual assignment to a baby born with genitalia that is ambiguously male and female. Buying a pink bicycle for a girl’s birthday and a black bicycle for a boy’s birthday. Accepting the way someone is regardless of their anatomy, how they are dressed, how they talk, who they love. B and C A and B 28. Why despite the dominant status of English Creole and the relatively privileged status of Creole people in Belize, do Creole speakers commonly defer to the superiority of speakers of foreign varieties of English, like those associated with the United States and England, and accord them greater prestige? A. B. C. D. Because of anti~"Spanish“ prejudice that has long existed in the nation Because of the decline in use of the Garifuna language among children and young adults Because colonial-era stereotypes in Belize held the Garifuna to be a "savage" group whose practices and rituals were both foreign and primitive. These negative associations still adhere to Garifuna identities today and judgments about language choice point to this. Because interethnic competition and the ideologies of ethnic/racial superiority and nationalist pride force this decision 29. Why do Garifuna youth feel pressured to speak English Creole? A. B. It has always been popular among adults, and therefore, not popular among young people. it increases their status within the nation. C. Serves as a method for creating solidarity with Creoles in the face of the increasing "Spanish" presence in the nation. D. B and C B. All of the above 30. How is the connection between language and gender also like those associated with language and race, language and nationality? A. Most often, if you are able to determine someone’s race, you can also make an educated guess about his/her gender and nationality. B. Language maps onto power differences so that certain interactional styles of speaking carry more status than others. Deficiencies in the way people speak in relationship to standard grammar generally point to gender, race, and nationality. . A and C _ . C with the addition that certain genders, races, and nationalities are closer to performing standards of grammar than others, which makes it more difficult for the connection between the three to be determined through language two 31. What among this list best describes Labov’s argument in his essay, “Academic Ignorance and Black Intelligence”: A. Deficiency in Black English Vernacular (BEV) speakers comes from a lack of verbal stimulation at home, and not any particular problem with the public school system, which provides the same standard of learning for all children. B. BEV is not evidence of uneducated or psychologically deprived speakers but actually follows a patterned usage suggestive of a highly structured system with complex grammar, vocabulary, and rich history. C. BEV is one of the cultural and historical artifacts of the African-American community and should be preserved and celebrated. D. Speakers of BEV did not have access to classroom English at an early age and so will never have the cognitive ability to achieve the standard English. E. Heredity is much more significant in determining speaking styles than environment. 32. The film American Tongues shows us that: A. People with southern accents all tend to be racists. B. The education level of an American adult can be accurately determined by the thickness of their accent. C. Popularly-held views with respect to differences in accent can reinforce hierarchies of race and class. D. Variations in American English are so minimal that it is incorrect to refer to such variations as “accents” at all. E. B and D 33. Ochs and Taylor‘s study of middle—class White American dinnertime family dynamics shows that: A. Fathers' power was linked to their tendency to problematize the narratives of others. E. Mothers used their knowledge of linguistics to prevent fathers from victimizing children. Mothers and children consistently formed alliances to defend themselves from the problematizing power of fathers. . Mothers tended to orient dinnertime conversations towards situations where there own narratives, or those of their children, were open to being problematized by fathers. A and D 34. Why are sex and gender one and the same in many Western cultures? A. B. C. D. E. Because sex determines how that person will be raised and treated within a particular gender role. They are not at all one and the same but treated distinctly different, to the extent that gender trumps sex in the long run Because gender is naturalized by tying biology to it. A and C C with the addition that sex is socialized and is not considered biological. 35. In “Academic Ignorance and Black Intelligence”, what part of the Linguistic Deficit Theory does Labov believe are extremely dangerous when it comes to developing models for learning? 36. A. B. C. D. E. The lower-class child's verbal response to a formal and threatening situation demonstrates his lack of verbal capacity, or verbal deficit. Class and ethnic differences in grammatical form are equated with differences in the capacity for logical analysis. ' Teaching the child to mimic certain formal Speech patterns used by middle-class teachers is seen as teaching him to think logically. Children who learn formal speech patterns are then said to be thinking logically, and it is predicated that they will do much better in reading and arithmetic in the years to follow. All of the above The film American Tongues illustrates which of the following? U0w> E. . Everyone has an opinion about how others speak. There are many varieties of English in the United States Speech reveals information about how we deal with the world In Hollywood movies, characters with strong accents are usually portrayed as either the villain or a comical character All of the above 37. According to evidence presented in the “Father Knows Best” article, which of the following statements is/are true? A. B. Fathers were least often in the role of protagonist and therefore their thoughts, actions and feelings were not typically exposed to the scrutiny of other family members Mothers are typically the ‘primary recipients’ during conversations at the dinner table -C. Fathers tend to take on the role of “reasoner” more often than mothers do D. All of the above E. A and C only 38. According to William Labov, which of the following statements is true? A. Black children from ghetto areas receive little verbal stimulation and are therefore impoverished in their means of verbal expression B. Black children in urban ghettos participate fully in a highly verbal culture C. ‘Cultural deprivation’ refers to the tendency for certain minority groups to be excluded from certain community activities D. Linguistic research has demonstrated that middle—class speakers tend to be more effective narrators, reasoners and debaters than many working—class speakers E. None of the above 39. In the article by Carla Guerron-Montero concerning music and national identity among Afro-Antilleans, Afro-Antilleans are using music to reposition themselves nationally through participation in what? A. Protests for recognition B. Church rituals that combine Calypso with sacred music C. Transnational music circuits D. Heritage festivals held annually in the town square of Bocas E. AandD 40. Carla Guerron-Montero speaks about Bocas, where what phenomenon unexpectedly has provided a place for the reassertion of Afro-Antillean identities in musical worlds that are not the domain of other ethnic groups in the country? A. The g10bally~recognized ster of Calypso B. An increase in funds for performances that have increased the number of heritage festivals in the town square of Bocas C. The tourism industry in Bocas D. Church support for Calypso music B. International aid from the US government 10 ...
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ANT102H-Dec 2009 - UNIVERSITY OF TORONTO MISSISSAUGA...

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