Exam 2 Study Guide

Exam 2 Study Guide - Psychology 315 Exam #1 Study Guide...

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Psychology 315 Exam #1 “Study Guide” This guide is meant to guide your studying in the direction of topics that will most likely be covered on the exam. For nearly all of the topics, be prepared to recognize examples of each and spontaneously generate definitions and examples on your own. If you know everything covered by this guide thoroughly, then you should score at least a 95% on the exam. All of this guide was constructed by revisiting the lecture slides and looking at the textbook. If you can’t find an answer to a question, look again. And if you still can’t find the answer, ask a study buddy or Dr. Kim during a scheduled review session. Cognitive Dissonance Theory What is cognitive dissonance theory? How does it differ from behaviorist theories of human motivation? What is the motivation described in cognitive dissonance theory? Feeling of Discomfort caused by holding two or more inconsistent cognitions and by performing an action that is discrepant from ones customary positive self conception We are motivated to be seen in a positive light. The difference between behaviorist theory and CDT is that we base our self worth on our rewards and punishments, but cognitive dissonance is the maintenance of our self worth regardless of the behaviors we make. How is cognitive dissonance a theory of attitude change? By changing the way we look at a behavior (attitude) we feel less guilty when doing so. Ex: smoking must not be bad, my grandfather smokes and he is 87 yrs old, so I can smoke. What is post-decision justification? Dissonance aroused after making a decision, typically reduced by enhancing the attractiveness of the chosen alternative and devaluating the rejected alternatives (I just committed to something, it must be good). Ex: a person is more confident on a bet after he placed it What is justification of effort? Ex: Fraternity guy loves his frat after hazing Tendency for individuals to increase their liking for something they have worked hard to attain What is insufficient justification? Insufficient rewards for your behavior leads to internal attribution, I must like it What is insufficient punishment? Lack of sufficient external justification for resisting a desired activity resulting in a devaluation of the activity itself. Ex: If you hit your brother again, you have 1 minute of time out, brother then thinks that the punishment isn’t stopping him so it must be that hitting his brother isn’t fun, or moral (internal). Describe the original experiment conducted by Festinger and Carlsmith. Which of the above principles does the original Festinger and Carlsmith study demonstrate? How does it demonstrate this principle? Insufficient Justification, because they were only given 1 dollar for
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spinning stools so they didn’t do it for the money, they did it because it was actually fun Describe the experiment conducted by Aronson and Mills. Which of the above principles does the study conducted by Aronson and Mills demonstrate? How does it demonstrate this principle? Effort of Justification because depending how demanding the process was depicted how much
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This note was uploaded on 12/07/2011 for the course PSYC 315 taught by Professor Kim during the Fall '10 term at Texas A&M.

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Exam 2 Study Guide - Psychology 315 Exam #1 Study Guide...

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