_ALLEN__cholLehn - Cholesterol Biosynthesis a 3C2 b C6 c C6...

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Cholesterol Biosynthesis a b c c d e 3C 2 C 6 C 6 C 5 C 10 C 15 C 30 cholesterol a. HMGCoA synthase is common to sterol and ketone body synthesis b. HMGCoA reductase makes mevalonate (MVA), the key and first intermediate of sterol biosynthesis. This is a highly regulated step. c. An “active isoprene” is made which may combine with another C 5 unit to make C 10 and C 15 products. d. Two C 15 units dimerize to form squalene, a C 30 molecule. e. Squalene is cyclized using O 2 and many enzymes to give cholesterol. f. The whole process is very energy dependent in terms of ATP and NADPH utilization. p 816-819 Lehn
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Mevalonate Pathway for Cholesterol Biosynthesis
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Three kinases and decarboxylase X 3 X 3 3C2 C6 C6 C5 p 817 Lehn isoprene
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p 818 Lehn squalene C5 C10 C15 C30 cholesterol p 818-819 Lehn
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Bile Acid and Steroid Biosynthesis Cholesterol is oxidized by mixed function oxidases (hydroxylases) to give a. Bile acids (salts) which are biological detergents b. Steroid hormones such as - progesterone ( steroid precursor of other steroids and regulator of events during pregnancy) - cortisol ( glucocorticoid promotes gluconeogenesis and is anti- inflammatory agent) - aldosterone (mineral corticoid regulates ion balance in kidney) - estrone ( female sex hormone, supports female sexual development and characteristics) - testosterone ( male sex hormone, promotes male sexual development and maintains male sex characteristics)
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Cholesterol Metabolism to Steroids, Bile Acids and Vit D Hydroxylases (i.e. P450 enzymes,
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_ALLEN__cholLehn - Cholesterol Biosynthesis a 3C2 b C6 c C6...

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