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_OBRIEN-10__Protein synthesis 72-80

_OBRIEN-10__Protein synthesis 72-80 - Protein Synthesis...

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Unformatted text preview: Protein Synthesis Activation of Amino Acids a. ,7. ,9 0 0 fi ‘ ‘ .1- i, I: {I ' ° 1" 9—64; 4, [Ly/9“) R’C’L —0»¢’ac—-nbose-Adenme ”’07 + -<"""' 3 I 9 / IVA/7’ a " Enzyme-bound Aminoacyl-tRNA + P_Pi Synthetase Enzyme bound \ a V 1/ “9 . b AMP~aminoacid A R’Z/“C /,r W“ + ,4 /é’ ’5 R” / + 27%0 Amino acyl tRNA 0. Activation. . . Ester bond in aatRNA has free energy of hydrolysis ~ ATP terminal P04 (1. Specificity of aatANA synthetases: 1) For tRNA (20 - 30) At least 20 2) For aa. (~20) ' different synthetases 6. Accuracy and proofreading Anticodon and other bases in tRNA specific for aatRNA synthetase. Cognsate tRNAs induce hydrolysis of mischarged aa adenylates -) 10' error frequency 72 Z a)" ”I”? 074(15- ' Anticodon loop Anncodon / \ W/C //’/@ (1/ £456} 1? i? E? H H H CH3 H H , / \T/CW/ \Il‘J/C\fi/ \fl‘l C\C|:--H //C‘C‘(3\ //C\N ’C\ ICW’C?H 0 I H 0 I H 0 l H ribose ribose ribose Pseudouridine (w) Ribothymidlne (T) Dlhydrourldine (D) FIGURE 27.7 A sampling of the modified and unusual bases found in tRNAs. 73’ Ewe My? 7” 1307/59 75‘ tRNA is an "adapter" molecule between nucleotide "language" and amino acid "language". GENETIC CODE a. Coding ratio: 3 nucleotides / amino acid b. Codon assignments: 4 bases, taken 3 at a time 3 4 = 64 combinations 61 codons code (usually) for 20 amino acids 3 codons code (usually) for stop signals c. Redundant More than one codon for all amino acids except Met and Trp d. Non-ambiguous A given codon specifies one and only one amino acid e. Non-overlapping CATGAG VS. CATGAG \_/ 1._/ l l L_I L__I l__J The ribosome must maintain a reading frame of three bases at a time to properly translate mRNA. On some rare occasions, depending on structural properties of the mRNA, four bases may be "read" /' 7b ' 73h , . , 5 xi" . .U’ y) m . s' qr. r ..~ :3 5" :53 ' E n .3“. . ,a I" ‘ 3i. 9.:- )9 31'. 56 The synthetic polynuc- .3 leotide (AAG)n Via-“A? —AAG/AAG/AAG/AAG— or —A/AGA/AGA/AGA/A— or -AA/GAA/GAAsl‘g-gfigze- I l I Translation on Yields Yields Yields ribosomes in a t t l cell-free system -Lys—Lys—Lys-Lys— -Arg—Arg—Arg— ”G'U‘G'U'G'U‘ Polylysine Polyargtnine Polyglutamate 76 1006 CHAPTER 27 INFORMATION DECODING: TRANSLATION Anticodon ' Codon TABLE 27.1 Modifications of the genetic code H H N O ...... H—N/ H Codon Usual Use Alternate Use Where Alternate Use Occurs / W / AGA Arg Stop, Ser Some animal mitochondria, some nbose / N _ _H ' . " ° ° N N H AGG protozoans N—H - - ~ - - - O \_0 AUA lie Met Mitochondria / nbose H CGG Arg Trp Plant mitochondria Guanine—cytosine CUU Leu Thr Yeast mitochondria CUC CUA CUG AUU Ile Start (f Met) Some prokaryotes“ GUG Val UUG Len UAA Stop Glu Some protozoans UAG Guanine—uracil UGA Stop Trp Mitochondria, mycoplasmas FIGURE 27.4 Selenocysteine E. coli“ The wobble hypothesis. As an example, we show how the anticodon base G can pair with either C or U in a codon. Movement (”wobble") of the base in the 5’ anticodon position is necessary for this capability (see arrow). "Depends on context of message, other factors BACTERIAL RIBOSOMES Monoribosome8 7_O_§ Ej/ & kCl Mg2+ m & subumts 5 sRNA 23 sRNA 16 sRNA 32 proteins 21 proteins _E_____UKARYOTIC RIB_O__SOMES é_s _O_s 5 sRNA 18 sRNA 5.8 sRNA ~30 proteins 28 sRNA ' A mac—{31 720 Z ' 3781100 1‘1", "30 700 uA1:A 710 c°°°h 1000 " it: c“ 1120 1 G a . GAAA a x 3 a c I 000 A0 A‘uec AucuoaAo 0 ac 0‘ oAAAu Acmnc ccchcuuua cc cecuc a ........... " . uaasasazsza 11111;; q°°°Aug°°°fi°°UUAAa‘g.8§°,° . A 61131123A(30A<:AA|AA<:UMA . 690 680 ' 7m 1070 c a G c1150 1140 670- a-c 7N UoA A 0 0:6 I 8:3 A 51150 8-8 AGA 10;” u u Q?“ 4% own-10 U 1 13-1:A Ga 0‘ o c u A W 1oeo-u-A1200‘t.v o - I a A e A u a c o c u-e 8:8 6-0 0-03 A’ a 660- 8-6 ""5 300 1020 GCIGA 8:: ’ AAuA 0"“ 781k A‘C'GG I u-A cA-u “70 c-o A u a“ uaAoAAUG c cg . 3 332-750 ‘2; A A111.11- 01°” 6: 65” 40 650 y'" “a - 0° ch'uuuquAGQCI, “6-: AA c \00A 1.: ‘3 3:° 1010 , AclfeAcg;3-121o A‘CCUOGG uacAucu AcuaecA 61: A 3.5; 1000 cu’ u 620'0 II'III '0II.'IIIII'°|I|" 00c 760 8-6310 a40\cUU A GE uceooccc. GUOUAGIACUGAUUGUIUUO I” 06‘ 770- :acg o c c- ?UAA‘ eoo ‘ 590 °°°a‘ 30 ‘° c u“. °~‘Z°‘ seq ‘e%u§:§ “a 610 ’1 A gird? Z c \A A‘=<=}‘=A¢’?‘% c 3:10 a .' 050 cCUuA§—§1zzo 12 \‘ 6 580 cc ‘6 \ GA '\ A‘ - G A \ \ u 2 «“u‘c‘az? "My“ 2 3 12 a ‘ch 127° A A 11111 c _ A A 6470 A0660‘: AA cAecu flaw scat“ “Mg-1‘:A 0:2 dig/:09 "u z’ u 480 c 6 /°c-a°‘830 AU 970—c \ 960 _ I‘ A \ ORA” I G (3-5:!) 570 3-c 87°, UGCI’ U A gzc‘m U U 1230 ’ ' Auuo 53°" U g-c a A ceu 950- .9 00*" A «50 ’2 0 Ac c A u 890 M -u deAA 6‘13’ a Ca,uA u a 1 c -9 129 ‘s l o u u-A UAG “OGAGM aocc °c -c ‘ c ‘ “$131290 6 u 510 3:8 560. U ”" ram 0 'U A A c2,490 \ c-a :1 cflQA‘ Auuth “0 a A 1 -A A A ’30“; ace: u“g-0540 0 ‘1‘; ,9“ G 91“" 1.91" 1040 0-1000 ‘50 ’1 ‘ Ocag-g 3; GUAIIIAAUU?:?GG??????CACAA\\\QCU:— % - a I ‘- 41) A ”/‘0. £33 a t‘\‘°‘c\u“:‘L.I-J :2 CAaucuuccoa? "i g g ””A ' '° ‘6”\ 0*“ U A 0 ° C G 011550 2°52?” 1400 2 r, 2 ||oo o _ ’ UU°°°° "‘"°"°o° ‘0': ° ‘3 1300 ° "0 “9%?“ 1010 ' ‘MAAG‘oo‘ c “06 3 S °A U",6 1330 C‘— 420 ”o A \\\ ‘0 ‘ g UAAG, ”Q3; U: \ c A A I, u (5.: A*°°1°°‘1'111~‘3°‘ ‘ A“ °" °« ”7° “i1 1? s 11 .. c ‘ C 0 0-0 u A \ 0AA 1°°°°°UAA€ci3 u 1410— Azu-‘490 A 135° I 330 I“ {50 8-3 11.1500 1:20 6 66-6 A :96 g 9 2:3 3-" . ca 350 A- 66:3 6 1510 A 115° 8-2 . . e a . U 0 ac“ ' A‘GO sou UAACCGUAGOGG 330 ’,° 0 1420—033-1430 ~lllll°lll‘ cA'c 340« c u a." ouueccGUCfA e A . 3 fiffffo 2 fi-g $1530 1520 3”; °°°A<°°uc' “mm 2:3 c O . FeAsgazo Ac u. Mg ::3 8 Ou’l. A ch °"° ’1 “Ga so A- c Cue 1,91: ‘\ c ACA ’I, AA , 1430—A “5-1470 50’! GOOAGG ‘3 GUC'HGA 5 A U 290’ h ‘ 100 cuuu ’ I?“ c * 0 ° ‘3 110 cu I u A - ° " u 1 uc G C 9—15-10 280 cc\ A 90 at) 2:3 U 1 ‘F‘\ a, . 00‘120 - u A ‘c&\\ GT 6:}! 8": ° 'dfioA-U “ng3 ‘fi‘c‘ §:§ 373-1450 \ A U 0 G 270 c‘K‘ "0*25" 0 ”Hm : _ A \d‘ U c G 0 ‘EP zw-uG-Cu 0*: 0° ‘33 A g 1450— "W 1: 0-0 a “mac 2:3 U‘A 220 32‘8”“ 150 1 c- A a 6‘ AA 600 ccucuuc‘ o 00 Au cUAcuaG 210‘s lllltll' I Hall Illl-l {160 use 0013er iaccAUA aAuaacA A0 I A ‘0‘: 200 A "wan 1 A A CA 170 cfi'fi G- 190-A 0 Ac \0 I540“AAA 350 350 U A A 370 A GSOU 650 u A 340 ”was: GAUUA‘AAUMAA ”S’s/GA A“??? $9M???” $?‘:°“u III III III I II A NGUCG UCAAUCUUAAAUU -36 USA“ Aucc CAAACGA A‘w‘c A AA. -c-380 530 C A-670 330 320 -c 620 ”U" ‘c 6:3 AGA u°_°u 3“ c 3 A A—uGA A A AG_CC E:G 68° 31o—C A 42016-(1 43° ELUCA g u AI282? 610~c-2A uA—u u A A‘ CU Au-G " G 39°C I? 3'3 ca c ccA o G 600 cu_A 690 A ° «0935—440 “cf": c c A-u A Q: G A 400 3:8 A C 13""‘ A - c U " 300 AA °cc .u‘G ° °”AA cauU‘I’IZ': UU' 1)ch A - 450 58° * AA - u“ GU I c ccuCAC-G-7OO 5c AcA 460 c‘ “A c-e 290 ‘A GIWI“ "A a ‘3 - . | A \ _ CCACCGCG‘zso AUGC UUAUUAAAACA 57OICccc‘3‘ ‘AuAg—EA a a ' c G 560 SEA Ac é: §:§c 430 470 AAAU“ G;UV,71O ACAc 240 cG—u" ° 6 49° 550“55:3 72‘! ‘k ° u-A 230 A AGUAcuACUAGCAA 3-8 x‘ A 8:8 ‘u III C GA—uACA \\d\ ‘730 Aucufl‘ G CAUCAAAAuuca uc 540 c, ‘A, 230.é IL1—260 A Rage 520 500 530.: cuwAG‘X °A umu - A 20 A c u UGGCGGUGCUUUA U COM": AG‘ 740 333270 \\ ‘UccaAchu’ Illlllllll-l a“ G c 838 I'UAAO‘UCCUH‘JUUUGG ACACACGCACGAAGU cA a A 2204 Ag 0 3" ~' *7 920 830320}? ‘E, ‘6 6° U A \ A A 10 G A u \ A e—cA a A A , A k “c‘ c 340’?“ " G .1190 “Wm -7so Ud‘xuuc so - u G 930 "u "sec” 770 A: 210 M 8-8 a UAAGI G , AA U4, 200 “2‘ \dx" 0 u UAA AGCAUAcuGG 810 AU’/ GA ’1’ A AeudqucuAAoG‘ g-GA oII III-IIIA u’ c u A A A cuuceuauaAA c G AIIII-IIIc"40 636 I A AA (ICAAAuA CCGAAUU U g_3 L 940 G. 760 A 190C AAU AU 350 — gzé g 950 800 Acaazfi E-a 2 6-0 ' 1'Io—A-uA A a a U 160 8:8-50 A—u AACA AA AU-AC 900 G A G 860— "G A c 65 c A u A I, u c cc A u a c U CA- A c If G-g 150 ‘ "2" '890 uA Ac CA3 ACA‘GO 3-3 u I ‘e‘f—“Cccc 870 3-2 140 91° 6 7° 3-2 u Cc\ u AA 2:3 26A 6066828” c U 130 \cu 'ccAAG-c c A GC\AU‘G—c C" 880 A ‘EGA 110.3;g - 80 u \\ACA 100;",1‘ ° 2-2 G C A: 120 “3 A A A00 90 ...
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