ETSslides - fuel O2energy acceptor aerobicacceptor=oxygen...

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Electron Transport and Oxidative  Electron Transport and Oxidative  Phosphorylation - Introduction Phosphorylation - Introduction    most cellular energy derives from  oxidizing dietary “fuel”  fuel + O 2     energy oxidation  -transfer of electrons to  acceptor    aerobic acceptor  =  oxygen
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--  Efficient Efficient  -- very  efficient efficient  process- recall living  cells efficiency is ~ 41%, compared to  about 3% efficiency when burning oil or  gasoline   HOW? --  Separating Separating  carbohydrates, lipids, etc.  from oxygen to optimize recover of energy --  Stepwise Stepwise   recovery of energy from  oxidation of NADH and FADH 2  during  respiration to generate ATP   ******************************************* ******
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Questions Questions  What are these steps? –  Electron  Electron  Transport System (ETS) Transport System (ETS) How is this energy used to synthesize ATP? How is the energy yield maximized?
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Mitochondrion Mitochondrion  -- A. football shaped (1-2 μ ), 1-1000s in  each cell B. electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation Cytosol
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C.  Outer membrane Outer membrane - -  permeable to small molecules D.  Inner membrane Inner membrane - - electron transport enzymes embedded;   also ATP synthase   Cristae increase area   Impermeable to small molecules Integrity required Integrity required     for coupling ETS to  ATP synthesis Cytosol
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E.   Matrix Matrix TCA enzymes,  other enzymes; also ATP, ADP, NAD + , NADH,  Mg 2+ , etc.
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Definitions: Oxidation-Reduction Definitions: Oxidation-Reduction     = transfer of electrons from electron donor  to electron acceptor Example:    A:H + B = A + B:H                 donor     acceptor   electron  donor donor   (reducing agent,  reductant) is itself oxidized electron  acceptor acceptor  (oxidizing   agent, oxidant) is itself reduced
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-- both oxidation and reduction must  occur simultaneously  --one compound donates  electrons to (reduces) a second compound;  the second accepts electrons from  (oxidizes) the first. Redox Redox /oxidation-reduction - - electrons always move from compounds  with lower  reduction potential  to  compounds with higher reduction potential  ( more positive).
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Biological redox Biological redox     = Two half-reactions             A:H                       A A:H                       A        Reductant             Oxidant   +   e -               B                        B:H B                        B:H      Oxidant  +  e     Reductant    (acceptor)            (donor) Standard reduction potential, E °   Standard reduction potential, E °   -- measure of the tendency of oxidant  to  gain electrons, to become  reduced, a  potential energy.
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