L-19_&_20 - Readings in Lehninger, 5 Readings in...

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Unformatted text preview: Readings in Lehninger, 5 Readings in Lehninger, 5 th th edition edition pages pages Overview: Overview: 485-488, 569-577 Glycolysis: Glycolysis: 527-551, 584, 588-589 Gluconeogenesis: Gluconeogenesis: 551-558, 582-594 Glycogen: Glycogen: 246, 594-609 TCA Cycle: TCA Cycle: 615-638 Pentose Phosphate Shunt: Pentose Phosphate Shunt: 558-564 ETS: ETS: 707-722, 512-521 ATP synthesis: ATP synthesis: 723-737 =============================== Introduction to Metabolism Introduction to Metabolism Complex substances are broken down for energy, required metabolites, structural components, etc. Cells must synthesize new complex substances. Thousands of such reactions are occurring simultaneously in a single cell. ****************************************** ****** These rxns occur with a minimum of side products , energy loss or undesired interferences and at reasonable temperatures , pH and pressure . All of these rxns must be controlled or regulated for optimum efficiency. Free Energy Changes Free Energy Changes in Metabolism in Metabolism-- a reminder Overall G is negative (-) for catabolic processes example: higher energy A B C D E lower compound G 1 energy compound G 2 G = G 2- G 1 is negative for an anabolic process, the G ought to be positive ( + +) example: W V U S P -- Must supply energy, usually from ATP, to drive W P to make the overall G is negative-- So generally catabolic processes generate energy for anabolic processes ********************************************************** * General Pathways of Metabolism General Pathways of Metabolism-- Catabolism -- 1- Breakdown of macromolecules to building blocks -- generally hydrolytic protein polysaccharide lipid nucleic acids amino glucose, glycerol ribose, het acids other sugars fatty acids bases, phosphate-- no useable energy yield here- only building blocks obtained 2- Breakdown of monomers to common intermediates amino glucose, glycerol, acids other sugars fatty acids pyruvate NH 4 + acetyl CoA citric acid cycle ETS/Ox Phos ATP CO 2 Oxidative processes-- produce ATP & NADH for energy 3-Breakdown of intermediates to CO 2 and electrons is accomplished through a central oxidative pathway: the C C itric Acid Cycle itric Acid Cycle or TCA TCA or the Krebs Cycle Krebs Cycle . This cycle leads to the production of ATP by processes called electron transport and oxidative phosphorylation....
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L-19_&_20 - Readings in Lehninger, 5 Readings in...

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