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L-31_32 - 1 Lipid Classes a Simple Fatty Acids...

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Unformatted text preview: 1.. . Lipid Classes a. Simple Fatty Acids - saturated (e.g. Cl6 and Cu) ~ unsaturated (eg. Cm and CW) 08:1" or 20:4‘“ ""‘) 910 .0. -CH5- CH; CHz-CH; CH,- CH; CHf CH=CH-CH; CH5- CH,— CHi- CH,- CH,- CH,- CH, 0 5 6 s 9 u 12 ‘14 15 -O31‘:-CH,-CH,-CH,-CH=CH-CH,~CH=CH-CH,-CH C203“. I. II. N (6) 6) b. Mono, Di-and Triglycerides - e.g. triglyceride (triacylglycerol) component pggs g . glycerol . CI{,-0- R“ fatty acids l . CH-O-g-R' I o CHfo-é—R c. Glycerophospholipids (phosphoglycerides) - e.g. lecithin (phosphatidyl choline) Cit-025R" _ MW glycerol (IJH-O ~R' fatty acids 0 CH, phosphate lento. -o-CH,-CH,-1‘~LCH, choline .. 6H; 95 d. . Sphingolipids - e.g. Sphingomyelin comgonent parts . III sphingosine HO-C-CH=CH—(CH,),,‘CHJ fatty acid - o ‘ phosphate H-C-N-ii‘ R choline i I N F? 0 9H3 1; i CH,-0-£~O-CH,~CH,-lfl-CH, - CH,‘ e. Steroids - 0.3. Cholesterol H0 f. Prostaglandins - e.g. prostaglandin 132 (P6132) fj/\./\/\¢{:.— H0 \W 1 OH ' 2. 'o of i's Structural components of membranes I i 2. Storage forms of energy I . i 3. Transporters of metabolic fuel 5 ‘4. Emulsifying agents' i 5. Vitamins and Hormones i 6. Hybrid molecules with specnfic functions 7. 2nd messenger system e.g phospllatidyl mosrtol Wit? Wm WM MW! tit/J a. Protein and phosphoiipid components of membranes differ' in different tissues (extremes are mitochondria and myelin sheath) W31]; myelin ' 18 79 Human enhroeyte I 49 , 43 (plasma membrane) Mitochondria (outer membrane) 52 .413 Mitochondria (inner membrane) 76. 24 Bacteria (gram positive) 75 25 97 en branc *1 ve Clfll’ c eri 'c ' id Co 8' ' n E 1 oc Muochoggflg . [MIME Phosphatidylcholine I9 10 45 o Phosphalidylclhanolamine 18 - 20 24 55 Phosphatidylglycerol O o 2 13 Phosphatidylindsilol 1 y s o Phosphatidylserine 8 8 l o Sphingomyelin 17.5 ‘8.5 3 o Glycolipids IO 26 ~ 4 O ' , 0 Cholesterol 25 26 ' 3 o : Cardiolipin 0 0 18 I7 i The fluidity of the membrane ‘ ' phospholipids and Ihe clpoleste 98 Overview of Lipid Metabolism A. lipid catabolism Triglycerides *9 glycerol sat unsat odd' fatty acids L} proprionyl (C3) Ketone bodies B. lipid gngbolism CH,-g-S-COA HMG (20A *9 Cholesterol fattji acids . Steroids prostaglandins Bile Acids Vit D pltOSpholipids triglycerides sphingolipids 99 40% of daily energy requirement of people in industrial countries is met with T6 ' main tissues using fatty acids as energy source are liver, heart andresting skeletal muscle a 70 kg male has about 7 kg of lipid this is adequate for a 65 kg female has about 14 kg of lipid} about a month of starvation there are carbohydrate stores for only about a day carbohydrate and protein yield abo ut 4 kcal of energy/g _ triglycerides yield about 9 kcal of en ergy/g excess dietary carbohydrate is converted into TG b. Bile salts and pancreatic lipases lead to breakdown of dietary fats for absorption Resynthesized TG are then distributed to different tissues in the body by lipoproteins c. Tissue TG rs broken down by hormone sensitive lipase CHfo‘%'Rl lCHz‘OH Rl 80' R,— -O-JZ-H + 3 H30 N CH-OH g l I + R, o- CHfOf-RJ Lipase CH,-OH atriaeyl glycerol 100 r A _ chulation Epinephrine or Glucagon ; Insulin '— -—é .o ~ —> 1 'stimulates adenyl cyclase l cyclic AMP II [4’ stimulates protein kinase inactive protein active protein kinase kinase I E I I I ATP IL ADP & inactive lipase active Ii ' ‘ ~ place I , V, m "glycerol + [ TG fatty acids I Glycerol Metabolism ‘ O l CH;OH 31‘9"“ CH5- _0- l ‘ kmasa I -— _ H-(IJ-OH + ATP ‘9 H-C-OH + ADP . l ‘ CH2—0H CHi-OH glycolysis W C = O . Diliydroxyacetone phosphate 101 8 acetyl CoA + 7 FADH, + 7 NADH + 7H' 1 i t 96 2m) 14 ATP 21 ATP a. Fatty acids enter the cell as the free fatty acid: 004% to enable subsequent metabolism. b. mummtmiokinase) and inust be activated into the fatty acyl _. o 11-80: + ATP + CoASH ‘9 mg-SCOA + AMP + PPi AMP ii. R-80‘+ATP ~——; R-(fo. ~0-adenosine +PPi ‘- fatty acid fatty acyl adenytate Camitine Acyl Transferase l and II g‘nubr . munchondnal cytosol membranes matrix 0 reg-$500 camitine-OH R—(f-s-CoA camitine acyl transferase 1 camitine acyl transferase II 7? b (>wa 9 h E g a + 9 3- U: :1: ’3 3:0 9 3. + E .‘ N - _ m m m a. CoASH camitine-O—gk CoASH 102 5‘. 5‘ 57“ a“. ‘E‘. ‘53 Fatty acids are degraded by release of 2C fragments as Cl-Ig-SCOA by [Loxidatiom fl-Oxidation is a series of oxidation, 1 nydration and cleavage reactions centered around the B _(3) carbon of the fatty acid. . ' ' o CHJ-(CHZ),,-CH,-CH,-CHI-L"-S CoA C“ Acyl-CoA acyl CoA FAD oxidation dehydrogenase FADH, CH3'(CH2) I 1 'CH 1'é=%‘&'S'-COA Trans-N-Bnoyl-COAT - _ enoyl CoA H,O hydratase . hydration A H o CH,-(CH,),.-CH,- -CH,-t§-s-COA L-3-Hydroxyacyl-COA 3-I-IO acyl CoA NAD‘ oxidation dehydrogenase NADH + H“ CH"(CH2) . "CH1. 'CH1' g‘S'COA 3-Ketoacyl-COA D-Ketothiolase CoA-SH - thiolysis o CH,-(CH,)..-CH,-c-s-CoA + cry-gs 00A 6 cycles 7 CH,— ~S-COA 103 FAD ----> FADH 2 ATPs NAD' ----> NADH 3 ATPs CH,8-SCoA ---> TCA cycle 12 ATPs Iotln and vitamin B" and results in the formation of succinyl CoA. biotin C0, + ATP ‘ odd chain . CO; Bu ‘ CH5- CH,- g—SCOA L.) CHI-E— -SCoA_ , .-o -CH,—CH,-g-SCOA fatty acid propionyl CoA _ \l carboxylase; succinyl 00A :1 acetyl CoA melhylmalonyl CoA I 104 ...
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