1pp Niacin Sp 2011

1pp Niacin Sp 2011 - NIACIN NIACIN Spring 2011 Reading...

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NIACIN Spring 2011 Reading Assignment 334-338
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Video
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History hen corn was • When corn was introduced in Europe by explorers from America – many people developed strange “disease” • severe skin lesions amed elle gra hich in • Named pelle agra which in Italian means “rough skin”
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Niacin Deficiency - Advanced Pellagra
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iacin: Pellagra Niacin: Pellagra • >100,000 people died of pellagra 1900-1940 Pellagra (dermatitis and oral lesions)
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Niacin Deficiency: Pellagra • Symptoms kin Skin •Dark pigmentation •Burned appearance •Much more severe when exposed to light
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Niacin: Deficiency •Symptoms “ our D’s” – Four Ds • Dermatitis • Diarrhea • Dementia • Death
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iacin: Pellagra Niacin: Pellagra –Goldberger: infectious disease scientist •studied prisoners- used physicians wife and graduate students as experimental “animals” •proved not caused by infectious agent •associated with diet
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nimal Model for Pallegra Animal Model for Pallegra ietary deficiency that led to “black • Dietary deficiency that led to black tongue” in dogs –r esponded to nicotinic acid – proved cause and effect – fatal condition cured by niacin
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Severe Niacin Deficiency ) Lesions of hands in pellagra A) Lesions of hands in pellagra ) Same patient after treatment B) Same patient after treatment with nicotinamide
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Bioavailability of Niacin: Key to Deficiency – Corn Diets • Some corn-based diets associated ith pallegra with pallegra – Niacin content not extremely low – Exposure to high pH key to release bound niacin – Diets usually low in protein • Tryptophan an inefficient precursor of niacin
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Niacin: Food Sources • Most concentrated: meat • Poultry, fish, legumes •T r yp toph an – Milk – Eggs eanut butter Peanut butter • “Enriched” flour and rain grain
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iacin: Chemical Structures Niacin: Chemical Structures
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Niacin: Chemical Properties •Niacin –Nicotinic acid –Nicotinamide –NAD –NADP
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Niacin Coenzyme tructure Structure
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Conversion Tryptophan to Niacin
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Niacin: Niacin Equivalents (NE) •P ro te in – 1% tryptophan – 60 gm protein = ~ 600 mg tryptophan (1 gm protein provides ~10 mg yptophan) tryptophan) • Niacin equivalents – Preformed niacin + niacin from tryptophan •Conve rs ion 60 mg tryptophan 1 mg niacin = 1 NE
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Low Tryptophan Diets • Research data suggest that humans may not utilize tryptophan for niacin when tryptophan levels are low rotein needs higher priority than • Protein needs higher priority than conversion to niacin
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Niacin: Absorption & Metabolism • Absorption –Stomach: passive diffusion –Small intestine: facilitative diffusion; active transport, and assive diffusion passive diffusion •More rapid than in the stomach
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side Enterocyte Inside Enterocyte icotinamide may be converted to NAD • Nicotinamide may be converted to NAD or released into portal circulation icotinic acid primarily converted to • Nicotinic acid primarily converted to NAD • Nicotinamide released enzymatically from NAD • Nicotinamide primary circulating form
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This note was uploaded on 12/09/2011 for the course HUN 4445 taught by Professor Sitren during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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1pp Niacin Sp 2011 - NIACIN NIACIN Spring 2011 Reading...

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