1pp Vitamin E 11 - Vitamin Vitamin E Spring 2011 2011...

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itamin E Vitamin E Spring 2011
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itamin E: History Vitamin E: History • Evans & Bishop discovered – wheat germ oil cured productive failure in rats fed reproductive failure in rats fed rancid fat • Evans isolated vitamin E from wheat germ and named the factor “tocopherol” from Greek “tokos” meaning “offspring” and “pherein” eaning to “bear” meaning to bear
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Chemical Forms of Vitamin E • Vitamin E name includes 8 ifferent forms different forms • 4 tocophenols and 4 tocotrienols • tocotrienols differ from tocopherols –Unsaturated side chain
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orm that Meets Human Form that Meets Human Requirement • Food and Nutrition Board defined α -tocopherol as only form that eets human vitamin E meets human vitamin E requirement nly copherol shown to reverse –only α -tocopherol shown to reverse deficiency symptoms
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Naturally-Occurring Stereoisomer in food is RRR- α -tocopherol carbons at the 2, 4, 8 position in R position
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Synthetic Vitamin E • Chemically synthesized α -tocopherol is not identical to naturally occurring form in food • Chemical synthesis produces 8 different ereoisomers stereoisomers – mixture of 8 stereoisomers referred to as all-rac- α -tocopherol p – Only 4 of these are biologically active- stereoisomers- must be 2 Rforms R RR SR RS SS
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Biologically Active Forms
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Synthetic Vitamin E • Chemically synthesized - copherol α tocopherol • Only half of the stereoisomers in all- rac- α - tocopherol meet human requirement
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Blood tocopherol response to labeled (d3 and d6) dose of 150 mg each of d3 RRR- α -andd6 all rac- α -tocopherol
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itamin E: Food Sources Vitamin E: Food Sources • Major sources – Vegetable oils –Margarine –Mayonnaise –Wheat germ –Nuts, seeds
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Stability of Vitamin E • Oxidized easily ht heat or metals –light, heat, or metals destruction • Esterification of synthetic form revents oxidation/extends shelf –prevents oxidation/extends shelf life
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Vitamin E Absorption • Vitamin E absorbed along with fats as component of micelles into intestinal cells – all chemical forms are incorporated into chylomicrons inside intestinal cells • Fat malabsorption can result in vit E deficiency – Cystic fibrosis (pancreatic lipase deficiency) holestasis (decreased bile production) Cholestasis (decreased bile production) – Celiac disease
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Vitamin E Transport nlike other fat luble vitamins vitamin E • Unlike other fat-soluble vitamins, vitamin E does not have a specific transport protein • Transported as a component of plasma lipoproteins • Chylomicron remnants transport to liver iver exports copherol into plasma as • Liver exports α -tocopherol into plasma as component of VLDL – secretion of α -tocopherol into plasma under ntrol of copherol transfer protein ( PP) control of α -tocopherol transfer protein ( α -TPP) • genetic defect in synthesis of α -TPP leads to vitamin E deficiency
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α -Tocopherol Transfer Protein α -tocopherol transfer protein ( α -TPP) involved in transfer of α
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1pp Vitamin E 11 - Vitamin Vitamin E Spring 2011 2011...

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