Cr 6 pp(1) - Chromium: Discovery of Essentiality Chromium...

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Chromium 2011 "Source: WebElements []" Chromium: Discovery of Essentiality Time Line of Discovery 1959 1957-1967 1977 Schwarz and Mertz discover a chromium compound restored glucose tolerance in animals by enhancing the action of insulin Malnourished children with impaired glucose tolerance given chromium = improved glucose tolerance Female on TPN who developed signs of diabetes given chromium = symptoms ameliorated Chromium: Chemistry • Chromium is a transition element – Can occur in a number of valence states • 3+ and 6+ most common • Cr 6+ is strong oxidizing agent from industrial sources Cr •C r 6+ consumed in small quantities – reduced to Cr 3+ in stomach Cr 3+ = Most important form in humans Chromium: Excellent Sources Brewer’s Yeast Some brands of beer contain sig amounts Chromium: Other Sources Poultry Meat Nuts Whole Grain Cereals Chromium: Food Processing • Refining & milling decreases Cr content –Ex: haslessCr • Stainless steel + acid foods increases Cr has less Cr than White sugar Brown sugar Molasses
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Chromium: Absorption • Intestinal absorption – Primary absorption: jejunum – May be carrier mediated May be carrier mediated • Rate of absorption: 1-3% – Form influences absorption Chromium: Absorption Enhancement • Vitamin C increases absorption • Ligands chelate Cr to maintain solubility • Solubility increases absorption •Ex: Picolinate as a ligand: •helps maintain solubility •is relatively stable •is lipophilic • Inorganic Cr in neutral or alkaline environment reacts with OH - ions • Olation = high MW cmpd of Cr + OH - Chromium: Absorption Inhibition • Cr precipitation = decreased absorption •Ex: Antacids decrease blood and tissue Cr Chromium: Transport • Primarily bound to transferrin • May bind to albumin if transferrin unavailable • High Cr concentrations - Globulins/lipoproteins • Body pool: 4-6 mg transferrin Chromium: Function • Potentiates the action of insulin to improve glucose tolerance. • Mechanism still under investigation Mechanism still under investigation.
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This note was uploaded on 12/09/2011 for the course HUN 4445 taught by Professor Sitren during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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Cr 6 pp(1) - Chromium: Discovery of Essentiality Chromium...

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