PRO 6 pp - Outline of Topics Protein 2011 Essential Amino...

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1 Protein 2011 Outline of Topics • Amino Acids • Protein Digestion and Absorption Requirements through lifecycl • Requirements through lifecycle • Exercise as it relates to proteins • Creatine Essential Amino Acids • Essential amino acids: must obtain from diet TV TILL PM T ryptophan V aline T hreonine I soleucine L eucine L ysine P henylalanine M ethionine • Histidine • Non-essential amino acids – Dietary Non-Essential Amino Acids – Synthesized in vivo if nitrogen sufficient or from some essential amino acids • Methionine Cysteine • Phenylalanine Tyrosine Protein Sources • Exogenous proteins • Animal: meat, poultry, fish, and dairy products • Plant: grains, grain products, legumes and vegetables • Endogenous proteins • Desquamated mucosal cells (~50 g) • Digestive enzymes and glycoproteins (~17 grams) – That’s like 3 proteins shakes per day!!! Overview of Protein Digestion and Absorption
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2 Protein Digestion • In Stomach – Gastric Parietal Cells release HCl – HCl disrupts the quartenary, tertiary, and secondary structures. – Converts Pepsinogen Pepsin – Pepsin Function – Endopeptidase: cleaves between carboxy group to form large polypeptides, oligopeptides and free amino acids Protein Digestion • In small Intestine – Cholecystokinin (CCK) and secretin – Synthesized in duodenum in response to acid chyme. – Trigger pancreatic acinar cells to secrete bicarbonate, electrolytes, water and digestive proenzymes. – Proenzymes of importance: » Trypsinogen, Chymotrypsinogen, procarboxypeptidases Role of Trypsin in Digestion • Converted from Trypsinogen to Trypsin by Enteropeptidase – Enteropeptidase secreted in duodenum brush Enteropeptidase secreted in duodenum brush border in response to CCK and secretin • Trypsin converts other zygmogens such as chymotrypsinogen and procarboxypeptidases into their active form. End products of Protein Digestion • Free Amino Acids, dipeptides, and tripeptides • These end products must now be absorbed. Protein Absorption Amino acids absorbed mainly in proximal small intestine. Paracellular transport
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PRO 6 pp - Outline of Topics Protein 2011 Essential Amino...

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