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Vit D 6 pp - VITAMIN D Spring 2011 Vitamin D History...

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VITAMIN D Spring 2011 Vitamin D History: Rickets Common in Childhood when Sunlight Exposure Limited-Industrial Revolution Vitamin D: History • Mellanby, 1918 –Fat soluble food factor –Rickets in dogs raised indoors cured with cod liver oil • Steenbock irradiation process used to convert precursors to active vitamin D in food Vitamin D: History Steenbock • DeLuca: Steenbock’s student –active metabolites of vitamin D in humans –DeLuca still directing vitamin D research program and publishing Vitamin D: Nomenclature • Calciferol (vitamin D) –cholecalciferol (vitamin D 3 ) –ergocalciferol (vitamin D 2 ) –Synthesized by irradiation of D 2 precursor ergosterol in food
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Vitamin D2 and D3: Precursors and Differences in Structure Vitamin D: Food Sources • Natural vitamin D –Few concentrated sources •Fatty fish and fish liver oil •Chemical form –Cholecalciferol D3 Natural Food Sources of Vitamin D Dietary Sources of Vitamin D Natural Food Sources Serving Size Approximate IU Vitamin D Cod liver oil 1 tsp 400-1,000 Salmon, fresh wild caught 3.5 oz 600-1,000 Salmon, fresh farmed 3.5 oz 100-250 Salmon, canned 3.5 oz 300-600 Sardines, canned 3.5 oz 300 Mackerel, canned 3.5 oz 250 Tuna, canned 3.5 oz 236 Shiitake mushrooms, fresh 3.5 oz 100 Shiitake mushrooms, sun dried 3.5 oz 1,600 Egg yolk 1 yolk 20 Farm-Raised Salmon Enclosures: Less Exposure to Sunlight Irradiation Of Mushrooms: Large Increases in Vitamin D 2 Wild-Salmon:NaturalSunlight Exposure In US and Canada, milk is routinely fortified with vitamin D as are some orange juices, cereals, yogurts, cheeses, infant formula Vitamin D-Fortified Foods In Europe only a few countries fortify with vitamin D Fortified Food Sources of Vitamin D Fortified Food Sources Serving Size Approximate IU Vitamin D Fortified milk 8 oz 100 Fortified orange juice 8 oz 100 Infant formulas 8 oz 100 Fortified yogurts 8 oz 100 Fortified butter 3.5 oz 56 Fortified margarine 3.5 oz 429 Fortified cheeses 3 oz 100 Fortified Breakfast cereals 1 serving 100
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