Final Exam Review, 2011 spring

Final Exam Review, 2011 spring - HUN 4445 Final Exam Study...

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New Material 1/3 of the exam covers new material since the last exam 2/3 of the exam covers old material Refer to reviews from Exams 1-3 New topics Critical Care Drug/Nutrient interactions HIV/AIDS Metabolic response to stress - Ebb phase Decreased cardiac output Decreased O 2 consumption Decreased blood pressure Decreased body temperature Decreased insulin:glucagon ratio Flow phase Increased energy expenditure Increased glucose production Increased net muscle catabolism Increased lipolysis; limited ketosis Hyperglycemia Increased BCAA oxidation Loss of LBM and negative N balance Increased ureagenesis and elevated BUN Increased urinary K+, P and Mg losses Secretion of antidiuretic hormone and aldosterone ( Na and H 2 0 retention) Secretion of ACTH, norepinephrine, epinephrine, glucagon and cortisol (increased metabolic rate, O 2 consumption, body temperature) Release of cytokines and production of acute phase proteins Possible causes of MODS Macrophage hypothesis – due to prolonged SIRS caused by continual macrophage stimulation Microcirculatory hypothesis – caused by tissue and cellular oxygen deprivation Gut hypothesis – gut bacteria are translocated to systemic circulation and sustain SIRS state
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Final Exam Review, 2011 spring - HUN 4445 Final Exam Study...

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