islam dem 2 - What is Democracy? p. 1-25 Freedom House- New...

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What is Democracy? p. 1-25 Freedom House- New York-based organization that monitors democracies; annually assigns every recognized country ratings from 1 (high) to 7 (low) on political rights and civil liberties o Ex: Kazakhstan was assigned a 6 and 5, even though it claims to be a democratic state September 2004 legislative elections were internationally criticized for failing to meet basic democratic standards December 2005, Nazarbayev was reelected for a third 6-year presidential term with 91% of the vote; majority greater than 75% indicates sham election Resignations of key senior officials indicates internal power struggles o Nazarbayev became president in 1991 as Kazakhstan moved towards independence from the Soviet Union; gained control of revenues from gas and oil deposits Country grew poorer as he became richer Potential rivals were frequently jailed on charges of corruption, abuse of power, or immorality “thugs” working for state frequently assaulted or murdered dissident politicians and journalists o Ex: Jamaica was assigned a 2 and 3, but given a downward arrow for ratings because of a lack of investigation into crime, high levels of unemployment, and lack of investment in social development Effects of defining democracy: political standing, quality of life, and explanation Approaching definitions of democracy: o Constitutional- focuses on laws enacted concerning political activity o Substantive- focuses on conditions of life and politics promoted by regime Human welfare, individual freedom, security, equity, social equality, public deliberation, peaceful conflict resolution o Procedural- focuses on a narrow range of governmental practices to determine what qualifies as democratic Competitive elections producing changes in governmental personnel and policy o Process oriented- identify minimum set of processes that must be continuously in motion in order to be considered democratic (Robert Dahl: effective participation, voting equality, enlightened understanding, control of agenda, inclusion of adults) Dahl doesn’t include any provisions or prerequisites
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islam dem 2 - What is Democracy? p. 1-25 Freedom House- New...

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