Chapter 1 checklist - Chapter 1: Intuition- an approach to...

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Chapter 1 : Intuition - an approach to acquiring knowledge that is not based on a known reasoning process. Authority - an approach to acquiring knowledge that represents an acceptance of information or facts stated by another because that person is a highly respected source. Rationalism - the acquisition of knowledge through reasoning. Empiricism - the acquisition of knowledge through experience. John Locke - created the philosophy of empiricism. Each person is a blank slate and the origin of all knowledge is from our senses. Our senses imprint ideas in our brains that are further worked upon through cognitive processes. tubula rasa - individuals’ minds are blank slates or tablets upon which the environment or nature writes. Science - most trustworthy way of acquiring reliable and valid knowledge about the natural world. Induction - reasoning process that involves going from the specific to the general. Deduction - reasoning process that involves going from the general to the specific. Hypothesis - the best prediction or a tentative solution to a problem. logical positivism - philosophical approach that focused on verifying hypotheses as the key criterion of science. Falsificationism - deductive approach to science that focuses on falsifying hypotheses as the key criterion of science. Duhem quine principle - a hypothesis can’t be tested in isolation from other assumptions. Karl Popper - major criticizer of logical positivism. Thought the inductive verification approach of the logical positivism was based on a logical fallacy. Argued that science should rest on deductively valid form of reasoning. Believed in falsificationism. Naturalism - position popular in behavioral science stating that science should justify its practices according to how well they work rather than according to philosophical arguments. empirical adequacy - present when theories and hypotheses closely fit empirical evidence. normal science - period in which scientific activity is governed and directed by a single paradigm. regularity in nature - assuming there is uniformity in science. Without it we couldn’t develop theories, laws, or generalizations. reality in nature - assumption that what we see, hear, feel, smell, and taste is real, and so are our experiences. Things aren’t just creations of our imaginations. Think about the matrix. Discoverability - assumption that it is possible to discover the regularities that exist in nature. Paradigm - a framework of thoughts or beliefs by which reality is interpreted. revolutionary science - a period in which scientific activity is characterized by the replacement of one paradigm with another. Determinism - belief that mental processes and behaviors are fully caused by prior natural factors. probabilistic causes
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Chapter 1 checklist - Chapter 1: Intuition- an approach to...

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