Chapter 15: Inferential Statistics
1.
2 major divisions:
a.
Estimation
a.i.
Goal estimate the value of population parameters
b.
Hypothesis
b.i.
Goal test hypothesis about population parameters
2.
Use sample data to make generalizations about populations
a.
Sample set of cases selected from the population
b.
Population full group to which one wants to generalize
3.
Statistic a numerical index based on sample data
4.
Parameter numerical characteristic of a population
5.
Goal in inferential stats understand the population parameters
6.
Sampling Distributions
a.
the theoretical probability distribution of the values of a stat that would result if
you selected all possible samples of a particular size from a population
b.
sampling distribution of the mean the theoretical probability distribution of the
means of all possible samples of a particular size selected from a population
c.
standard error the theoretical probability distribution of the means of all possible
samples of a particular size selected from a population
d.
test statistic: a stat that follows a known sampling distribution and is used in
significance testing
7.
Estimation
a.
obtaining estimates of the values of a population parameters
b.
point estimation use of the value of a sample stat as one’s estimate of the value of
a population parameter
b.i.
use one number in your sample to estimate the one number of interest in
the population
c.
researchers prefer to use interval estimation
c.i.
placement of a range of numbers around a point estimate
d.
confidence interval interval estimate inferred from sample data that has a certain
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 Fall '07
 Lewis
 Statistics, Null hypothesis, Statistical hypothesis testing, Statistical significance, A.

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