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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 5: History and Organization of Law Enforcement 1. A Brief History of the Police a. Roman emperor Augustus created one of earliest recorded organized police forces in 7 th century b. Policing in Early England b.i. Frankpledge system- divided communities into groups of 10 men who were responsible for the groups conduct and ensured that a member charged with breaking the law appeared in court b.i.1. Ended in 19 th century 1800s b.i.2. Hundred- man served as administrator and judge b.i.3. Normans updated by adding constable- head of law enforcement for large districts; oversaw the watch-and-ward system that guarded the citys gates at night b.i.4. Shire reeve sheriff- led the English shires military forces and judged cases b.i.5. Hue and cry- alarm that citizens were required to raise on the witness or discovery of a criminal offense b.i.6. Statute of Winchester 1285- anyone could make an arrest, every citizens duty to keep the peace, a hue and cry must be raised to apprehend an offender and that every citizen was expected to participate, and that it was the constables job to present the suspect in court b.i.6.a. Problems: citizens resented watchman duty or werent good at it, some too elderly, some were drunk when on duty, some were lawbreakers themselves; did little or nothing to prevent crime b.i.7. Gin Effect b.i.7.a. Advanced development of law enforcement- invention of gin b.i.7.b. Democratized drunkenness new problems to London b.i.7.c. Govt responded by hiring more watchmen b.i.7.c.i. Created more corruption- rich hired linkmen aka bodyguards b.ii. Rise of Organized Policing b.ii.1. 1748- Henry Fielding and Sir John Fielding created Bow Street Runners b.ii.1.a. Members went on patrol, rather than sitting at designated post b.ii.2. 1798 West India Trading Company created fist professional, salaried police force Thames River Police b.ii.2.a. Private force formed to prevent thefts from the port b.ii.2.b. Differences from frankpledge system: b.ii.2.b.i. Officers patrolled to prevent crime b.ii.2.b.ii. Salaried and not allowed to accept any other payments b.ii.3. 1829 Sir Robert Peel sponsored Metropolitan Police Act...
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- Fall '11