exam 1 study guide - Exam 1 Review: Life span developmental...

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Exam 1 Review: Life span developmental perspectives – (paul baltes pg 11-13) development is a lifelong process/development is multidimensional/development is multidirectional (there are both gains and losses)/ plasticity-the capacity to change in response to positive or negative environmental influences (we have more earlier, less later…ex: older adults who engage in mentally stimulating activities such as chess or playing a musical instrument are more likely to regain intellectual mental activity, less likely to develop alzheimers/dementia)/historical and cultural context (shyness viewed as an asset in 1990 and looked down upon in 2002)/understanding development requires different disciplines (development is multiply influenced-everything from biochemical to historical events)/contextualized Domains of development -development takes place at different rates in different parts of the organism/ development is directional (head to tail=cephalocaudal, center to outward= proximodistal)/ development is sequential (not random, however it does not follow an orderly sequence)/ influenced by nature and nurture Growth - the physical changes that occur from conception to maturity Aging - positive, negative, and neutral changes in the mature organism (different from biological aging) Social clock - a personal sense of when things should be done in life and when the individual is ahead of or behind the schedule dictated by age norms Age norms - expectations about what people should be doing or how they should behave at different points in the life span Age grades - socially defined age groups or strata, each with different statuses, roles, privileges, and responsibilities in society Plasticity - an openness of the brain cells (or of the organism as a whole) to positive and negative environmental influence; a capacity to change in response to experience Life expectancy- the average number of years a newborn baby can be expected to live; now almost 78 in US Continuity/discontinuity issue - the debate among theorists about whether human development is best characterized as gradual and continuous or abrupt and stagelike Nature/nurture issue- the debate over the relative importance of biological predispositions (nature) and environmental influences (nurture) as determinants of human developments Systems perspectives -theories of development holding that changes over the life span arise from the ongoing interrelationships between a changing organism and a changing environment, both of which are part of a larger, dynamic system Environmental influences - events or conditions outside the person that are presumed to influence and be influenced by the individual Maturation -developmental changes that are biologically programmed by genes rather than caused primarily by learning, injury, illness, or some other life experience Genes - functional units of heredity made up of DNA and transmitted from generation to generation Chromosomes -threadlike structures made up of genes; there are 46 chromosomes in the
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This note was uploaded on 12/10/2011 for the course CRJU 100 taught by Professor Aaronfitchelberg during the Fall '11 term at University of Delaware.

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exam 1 study guide - Exam 1 Review: Life span developmental...

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