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Unformatted text preview: 61 The Religious Rhetoric of Mary Ashton Rice Livermore: Early Arguments for Woman’s Biblical Equality Barbara Mae Gayle and Bohn D. Lattin Abstract We argue that Mary Ashton Rice Livermore (late l800s) employedfive major strategies that allowed her sermon, “The spiritual argumentfor woman’s sufi’rage,”to appeal to her audience’s intellect rather than its passions: (l ) affirming shared values by defending the Word of God, (2) creating an authority partnership through Biblical equality, (3) mending the creation story through Christ's redemption, (4) Biblically sanctioning women as active agents of salvation, and (5) visibly enacting the theological perspectives advocated. In an era where most Americans feared woman's sufirage would dismantle society, Livermore used the ultimate authority—the Bible—to embrace her audience’s understanding of women's rightful place in religion and her community. Even though she advocated some fairly radical Biblical interpretations, she diflused opposition through carefully constructing arguments which did not undercut the value of scriptural texts. Her “good news” for women endeared her to audiences and more than likely promoted changes in the spiritual participation and leadership among women in a variety of Churches. Overall, we argue that Livermore provides a rare successful model for feminist Biblical scholars. Often, attempts to re-interprct biblical texts have met with resistance, hostility or disdain. Mary Fell was imprisoned (Latt. 1979), and Elizabeth Cady Stanton. author of the Woman's Bible, was accused of heresy and blasphemy (Harkness, 1972). Today’s feminist speak of being marginalized. muted, or excluded from biblical hermeneutics (Russel, 1985). One woman suffrage and temperance leader's work stands in direct contrast. Mary Ashton Rice Livcrmorc‘s "moral logic“ (Hanaford, 1883. p. 306) made her explanations of difficult biblical texts more palatable and well received by a variety of audience members (Hanson, 1882). For over 25 years from 1872 to 1898, Livcnnorc traveled over 25,000 miles annually (Phelps, 1884) and delivered more than 150 Lyceum lectures and sermons each year (Livermore, 1892). Several authors claimed that her “grand thoughts clothed in the choicest language," (Thaycr, 1896, p. 203) “protected the weak, rebuked the violent, enforced the beautiful order of justice and the economy of common sense” (Mary A. Livcrmorc Collection, Mclrosc Library Collection). Thus. she was the logical person to deliver messages in the “pulpits of Congregationalists. Presbyterian, Methodist. Baptist. Unitarian and Universalists" (Phelps, 1884, p. 411). One story related by biographer, Elizabeth Phelps (1884), is an example of Livermorc‘s successful religious rhetoric. Phelps tells of Livcrmorc. a Universalist, being asked to speak at a conservative, Calvinist girl’s seminary. She reported within “five minutes every woman in the room listened to her [Livermorc] like a lover" (p. 418). When Livermore 62 THE JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION AND RELIGION lead prayer, Phelps claimed she "took us with her to the very heart of Christ,..she swept away everything between soul and God—she was an appeal. an outcry from humanity to divinity" (p. 418). Thus, it appears that Livermore‘s religious rhetoric. regardless of topic or audience, seemed to be well accepted and sought after (Hanaford, 1883; Hanson, l 882', Phelps, 1884). We argue that Liven'nore’s religious rhetoric stands as a model for biblical interpretation even today. Part of her success we argue lies in her ability to reach the residents of rural America by connecting the liberal preaching methods of her time with her powerful biblical understanding and background in a rational approach to change. Although, the “personal, religious networks of the smaller communities” in which she was invited to speak “were well adapted to the exercise of women‘s influence" (Clark, 1989, p. 11), Livermore still had to overcome the natural trend toward Calvin orthodoxy and rigid interpretations of biblical passages that delineated certain societal roles for women. There is significant evidence that she was able to succeed in this endeavor and her success merits investigation. A complete example of the type of argument that Livermore constructed to promote woman's equality can be found in her sermon “The spiritual argument for woman suffrage." This sermon serves as a prototype of how she was able to overcome traditional religious orthodoxy. In this essay, we investigate how Livermore 's argumentation style allowed her to counteract the hostility of many of her audience members as she reinterpreted key biblical passages to support women's equality. We begin by explicating Livennore’s religious background and proceed to analyze her arguments using her five major strategies. Finally, we discuss the implications of Liverrnore's approach for women using these same arguments today. Religious Background Mary Ashton Rice Livermore was raised in the 18205 with “such Calvinistic stemness that she often expressed bitter regret to her father that she had ever been born“ (Sinclair. 1965, p. 19). She described attending two Sunday services and reading the Bible between those meetings and returning home to an evening religious education lesson with her father every Sunday of her young life (Livermore, 1898). Thus, Livermore became intimately familiar with the Bible, reading and rereading many passages through out her childhood and early adolescence. What caused Livermore to abandon her Calvinistic religious upbringing (Livermore, 1898), and perhaps eventually contributed to her ability to refute religious arguments was the death of her younger. invalid sister. So distraught over the death of her sweet sister. Livermore renounced a vengeful God, telling her parents “she preferred to be in hell with that pure, saintly sister than in heaven with such a God" (Hanson, 1882, p. 110). Later in life, when Livermore visited an Universalist church meeting where she listened to the most “hopeful, elevating sermon she had ever heard. full of loving kindness and forgiveness of God“ (Howe, 1982, p. 14), she was touched by this new religious theology. In 1845, she married Universalist minister, Daniel Parker Livermore, and served as a parish minister's wife for 12 years (Howe, 1982). During, this period Livermore actively taught sabbath school, attended Bible studies and organized charitable events as well as studied with Daniel and wrote for various religious publications of the day (Howe, 1982). She even edited the Lily ofthe Valley, a children '5 religious magazine, by writing nearly a third of it herself (Hanson, 1882). LIVERMORE'S RELIGIOUS RHETORIC 63 1n 1858, Livermore became an Associate Editor with her husband of the Chicago Universalist newspaper; the New Covenant (Howe, 1982). Her work on this “family paper devoted to religion, theoretical. and practical social reform, literature. and news" kept her abreast of current affairs and encouraged her participation in theological discussions (Howe, 1982, p. 15). Although Livennore never became a minister, in 1869 she gave the first of many sermons she would deliver (Hanaford. 1883) as she spoke from pulpits more than half the Sundays of the year (Howe, 1982). Clearly. her Calvinistic teachings and her embrace of the most progressive religious teaching of the day (Clark. 1989) influenced her scriptural interpretations. It is not surprising that with the Universalist value of “moral equality of the sexes, the worth of the individual and the imperatives for his or her full development as a human being" (Clark, 1989. p. 4) that Livermore would become an active social reformer for abolition. temperance, and woman suffrage. In each of these instances. her Biblical knowledge was used as a foundation for her presentations and her incorporation of Christianity appealed to her audience members—both secular and religious alike. Analysis of Livermore’s Sermon Throughout her sermon. “The spiritual argument for woman's suffrage." Liverrnore employed five major strategies that allowed her sermon to appeal to her audience’s intellect rather than its passions: (1) affirming shared values by defending the Word of God, (2) creating an authority partnership through Biblical equality. (3) mending the creation story through Christ‘s redemption, (4) Biblically sanctioning women as active agents of salvation, and (5) visibly enacting the theological perspectives advocated. She argued that the Bible calls for equality for men and women as well as for women‘s spiritual rectitude. She directly refuted the idea that the Bible spoke to woman's suffrage and circuitously refuted the idea that woman's fall from graCe necessitated her subservience to her husband and her role in the church. The overall image Livermore created for her audiences was compelling and Biblically-based. Acceptance of Livermore‘s interpretations was. as she argued, the acceptance of the Word of God as it was meant to be. Affirming Shared Values by Defending the Word of God Liverrnore began her sermon by establishing a common bond with her audience-the belief in the Bible as the Word of God. In 19th century America, the Bible was the source of divine authority for all Christian denominations and most members of society had a working knowledge of the Bible from reading it during congregational meetings and at home (Sinclair, 1965). Thus. Livermore could use her audience's knowledge of the Bible to debunk the complex spiritual arguments against woman‘s suffrage. To enact her strategy of affirming shared values, Livermore began the sermon by challenging the idea that the Bible addressed women’s right to vote. She employed this strategy carefully, extending her audience‘s belief in her position while not accusing any one person or group of misreading or misrepresenting God‘s Word. Livermore claimed that. “Many prominent religionists... some high in the church" believe that, the Bible was very explicit... that it expressly forbid the electing franchise... And yet it does no such thing. There is not a simple passage in the Bible...that can be fairly construed against woman suffrage. 64 THE JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION AND RELIGION Her argument that there were no passages that spoke directly to the issue of suffrage in the Bible. allowed members of the audience to search their Biblical memories and assent. agreeing that Livermore’s claim was true. Later in the sermon, Livermore revisits her claim, arguing, “If there were any...direct testimony...in the Bible against woman suffrage— it [would] be used by the opposition. as settling the controversy, pretty effectively.” Thus. her inference was that such passages did not exist. Because Livermore carefully avoided identifying those in opposition to suffrage or impugning their character, she was able to refocus her argument on those prominent religious individuals who supported her claim. She pointed out that while there were clergy from all the Christian denominations that opposed suffrage there were other...clergy in the same religious communities...of at least equal ability, learning ability—men who accept the Bible and believe its teachings—men...brilliant...of great intellectual and spiritual attainments— who believe in woman's suffrage—men such as Ward Beecher, Rev. Dee Hollen...Bishop Simpson... The tone of her address was completely civil. appealing to her audience's shared knowledge of God’s Word and their belief in the authority derived from those words. Her strategy was effective because it was not a harangue full of emotional appeals and attacks on men or the Bible. as was the custom of most radical feminists (Noun. 1969). Livermore elected to lay the foundation for agreement and then to address the more complicated Biblical arguments surrounding the issue of woman's suffrage. \ Creating an Authority Partnership Through Biblical Equality In order for Livermore to convince her audience that woman 's suffrage was not against God’s plan, she had to address the prescribed Biblical relationship between males and females. Her strategy relied on her audience's knowledge of the Scriptures and her tactic was to remind them of verses from Genesis and Galatians. By drawing directly from Scripture. the ultimate source of authority for most Christians, without bizarre interpretation. Livermore established the foundation for her claim that women were equal to men in God’s economy. Livermore began her argument by reminding her audience that according to the first chapters of Genesis. God created both sexes in His Own image and gave them both dominion over the earth. She reminded her audience members that “God stamped his own moral image on man and woman—alike." Her unstated implication was “Therefore. they are equal.” Next. she supported her claim by reading a Bible passage to her audience: “...God created man in his own image; in the image of God he created him; male and female created he them.“ once again implying that the sexes are equal. Livermore extended her argument stating: God did not make the woman subordinate to man — did not give him dominion over her - but gave to them both dominion of all things...Women created in the image of God — the same as man, his Equal and companion. Then. Livermore moved on to construct an elaborate and extended argument to support her claim that women and men are equal according to Christianity. She reasoned that under the Jewish economy men had rights and privileges. not accorded to women. but under the “Christian Dispensation their privileges were the same.“ In other words, she claimed that women in the New Testament were afforded equal status to men: LIVERMORE'S RELIGIOUS RHETORIC 65 The divine spirit was poured out upon men and women alike...Paul declared that they were ‘neither male nor female, but they were all one in Christ Jesus’ Gal[atians] 3:28. Livermore repeated this verse seven times within her speech. “Neither male nor female,” formed the foundation for her argument that the Bible called for equality between males and females. She repeated this premise using anaphora and alliteration in a well- formed fashion. Using Dr. Adam Clarke’s commentary on Galatians 3:28. structured in an anaphora. Livermore wove her evidence within the fabric of her major claim that “all are equal." Livermore argued that using Dr. Adam Clarke's “Commentary on the Bible"l her audience would conclude that: all are equally welcomed to Christ; all have equal need of him: - all persons of all sects and conditions and sexes. who believe in him, become one family...one body‘ Neither male nor female... they have Equal Rights, equal privileges. and equal blessings After Livermore established her principle of Biblical equality, she linked equality with what she argued is the highest religious virtue—loving one another. She then extended that virtue to the political process and enfranchisement, carefully intertwining one of the major virtues of Christianity with a major political ideal. Thus, Livermore implied that anyone who opposed woman’s suffrage stood against Christianity and the Union: Christianity, in everything, recognized the divine principle of Equality - that comprehensive and blessed precept - In all things love one another as you love yourself- This is the great Moral Rule - the divine precept - the higher law if you please . designed for all classes - and every individual of all classes - and applicable to all candidates of life. As she argued for the existence of Biblical equality for women, Livermore extensively documented the case for accepting woman’s suffrage as an extension of the Christian doctrine. Carefully grounding her arguments in the Word of God helped her lay the foundation for the larger Biblical question she would have to address if she was to be effective: The consequences of Eve’s fall from grace. Mending the Creation Story Through Christ’s Redemption Livermore recognized that her audiences were well-schooled on the fall of Eve. She realized that she had to reconcile the old testament teachings with progressive new testament beliefs. She enacted her strategy of the reconciliation through Christ by refuting what she herself called “one of the strongest passages quoted against woman‘s suffrage." In five distinct arguments, she addressed the passage concerning God‘s curse on woman after the Fall. Using the passage,“and he shall rule over thou." opponents to suffrage argued that women were “inferior to men in strength and intellect” therefore, “voting was an added burden beyond a woman’s capacity" (Coleman, 1973, pp. 262—63). Livermore understood that her success depended upon countering this passage. First. Livermore simply stated that since there was no suffrage or organized government when God made his degree. the curse “had no reference to the ballot." In her second refutation, Livermore began by conceding that “it may be claimed. that the woman... was made subordinate to the will of man..." “Very well," she argued. “suppose her husband believes in woman’s suffrage, and commands her to vote." Using a hypothetical enthymeme, she reasoned, “If ruling over her, is to have her do as he says — then. when a community of 66 THE JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION AND RELIGION male voters. gives her the privilege... she must obey!" Thus. she concluded. “this passage may be interpreted as much in favor of woman‘s suffrage as against it." Because there were men at the time who believed that women should have the right to vote, this strategy validated her argument by demonstrating that the command was not in direct conflict with woman’s suffrage. In her third refutation against the “he shall rule over thou” passage, Livermore claimed that, “Adam had no privilege giving him rule Over his wife except in love - in tenderness - in justice - in truth.” To support her claim, she used a passage from St. Paul‘s letter to the Ephesians arguing it "is the Apostolic, Christian doctrine - this; ‘love your wives - even as Christ also loved the church and gave himself up for it.m Her argument that, “God never placed a women... to be tyranniaed over... to have her rights... abridged...“ enabled Livermore to use the authority of the Scriptures as prima facia evidence. Anticipating her opponent’s objections to her claims in her fourth argument. Livermore refuted her opponent's challenge: Evidently woman was not forbidden to take part in the affairs of the Church and State; for we find Deborah — a great and nobel woman - a prophetess - and wife of Lapidath - exercising judicial and ecclesiastical authority - being one of the judges of israel... Using Scripture to support her case, Livermore continued to elaborate on Deborah‘s attributes. reminding her audience that Deborah led Israel for twenty years with the Lord 's blessing. In doing so. Livermore made it more difficult to disctmnt Deborah as a fluke in history. She established the potential for women to participate in governance with wisdom and authority. Livermore's fifth and final argument against “he shall rule over thou" used the New Testament to reconcile deeply held theological perspectives. She argued that: If whatever rights were forfeited by the Fall - were restored by Christ as a second Adam and Head of Every man — then man and woman stand before God - responsible for their own acts - as at the creation...” that primitive condition was retained by Christ that must be the true condition of man and woman now! Livermore ended her argument against “he shall rule over thou" passage where she began. She demonstrated that Christ had restored the status of man and woman to their “primitive condition." Livermore used a form familiar to her Christian audience. She f0110wed the structure of the Bible because it was a pattern familiar to her audience. She reinforced her points through alliteration (regained. restored. retained) and polyptoton (Equal rights to Equality of rights. primitive condition to Christian condition). She backed her argument with well-known Biblical authorities and texts. She demonstrated that “whatever rights were forfeit by the Fall - they were [won back] by Christ the second Adam." Her major premises and warrants were based on the authority of the Scripture because for a Christian audience there was no higher source. She used St. Paul's letters to support her contentions because second only to Jesus. St. Paul was considered the principle authority on Christian theology. By using conventional texts in an orthodox manner, Livermore strengthened her progressive argument. Biblically sanctioning women as active agents of salvation To achieve her strategy of sanctioning women‘s spiritual participation in the church, Livermore employed a two-fold approach. First, she supported the claim that women had LIVERMORE‘S RELIGIOUS RHETORIC 67 been granted equal blessings to teach and prophesies. Secondly. she interpreted and refuted Bible passages that seemed to indicate that women should be silent and submissive. Livermore began by reminding her audience that “men and women under the Christian Economy were equally capable...Woman has a deeply religious nature...as man does." Then, to suppon her contention that women were spiritually sanctioned to teach. Livermore defined three important phrases: "prophecy." “servant of the church." and “labor in the lord." again using the authority of Dr. Clarke. Livermore explained that “prophecy” not only meant to foretell the future, but also to speak forth on “the truth of Christianity to others." When defining servant as deaconess. Livermore suggested that one of the duties of a deaconess. “was to attend the female converts... to instruct the catechumens..." Then. she explained that “labor in the lord" was another way of saying that one “labored in the ministry of the word" or taught. Using many Biblical passages, Livermore claimed that “there is more direct and positive proof" that women were allowed to offer Biblical instruction than one could imagine. Quoting from Acts 21:9. Livermore pointed out that the deacon Philip had "four daughters which did prophesy.“ She concluded that “learned commentators" admitted "that these daughters of Philip were teachers..." In an extended example. citing Romans l6:1. Livermore showed that St. Paul commended. “Phebe our sister, who is a servant of the church..." as one who “instructed young converts...“ [n the another example. citing Romans 16:12. Livermore claimed that St. Paul saluted. “Trypliena and Tryphosa who labored in the Lord." using the same language he used to describe his own work. In her final example. Livermore quoted First Corinthians 11:5. “But every woman who prayeth or prophesieth. with her head uncovered dishoneth her head..." She summarized: "Women are here recognized as praying and prophesizing” by quickly citing Clarke to back her interpretation. Livermore concluded. “the main point is. that women prayed in public and prophesied, or preached." Finally. Livermore ended her argument. citing two other external Biblical authorities, that supported her claim that women taught and prophesied in the Church. The first of these authorities was Machniphus. who Livermore described as someone “who was not in full sympathy with the modern ideas of woman’s equality..." She argued that even he "was constrained to write..." we find Priscilla expound the way of God to Apollos (Acts 17:28) and the daughters of Phillip... who are said (Acts 21:6) ‘to have prophesied.’ By using a “hostile” witness, Livermore was able not only to offer a strong piece of evidence. but to summarize her claim that women were scripturally sanctioned to teach. In a similar fashion. Livermore used authority to connect the claim that women could be spiritual leaders and teachers to her major argument that women and men were equal. She asserted that Biblical equality was “confirmed by the most eminent ecclesiastical authority - Mosheim’s History of Christianity." She quoted at length to support her contention that the early church was made up of “a class of ministers, composed of persons of either sex. who were termed deacons." Having set forth her argument, Livermore attempted to refute two major objections to her case by making her audience choose between two “reasonable” alternatives. Livermore initiated her refutation by acknowledging that there were other Biblical passages that might seem contradictory to her argument for women’s spiritual participation in the church. For example. one passage was a command for women to be silent in the churches. But having 68 THE JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION AND RELIGION just shown that women were permitted to pray and prophecy in public. Livermore created a dilemma for her audience. She eased the seeming inconsistency of this passage by arguing that if there were Biblical passages that contradicted one another. “then the Bible is unworthy of our acceptance. If only apparently inconsistent - the objection has no force." For her audience, who believed the Bible to be the Word of God. the first alternative would be unacceptable and only an alternative that might stabilize and remove the dissonance could be accepted. Therefore. Livermore offered two arguments. one from circumstance. the other from definition. to explain this apparent inconsistency concerning a woman‘s use of her voice. In her argument from circumstance, Liverrnore explained that when the Apostle Paul directed women to be silent. he “was addressing Greek converts" or those under the influence of Greek customs. She continued: No Grecian woman could be intelligent and cultured without injury to her reputation. Mth propriety therefore under these circumstances. Paul commanded these Grecian converts “to learn in silence” as they could not do otherwise. except at the risk of their good name! Under different circumstances - different advice undoubtedly. would have been given. In Livennore’s second argument. in which she claimed that the Greek word “to speak“ meant “to speak inconsiderately, to prate. to chatter - to prattle. to quibble." Based on her own ability to translate Greek. she concluded that. “These are some of the primary definitions lexicons give us. Hence when Paul commanded a woman not to speak in the churches, he meant not to speak inconsideratcly... for he uses the word ‘labeo’. which exactly means this." Liverrnore thus documents a scriptural prohibition against frivolous speech not a woman's right to participate in the life of the church. Liverrnore then moved on to attack the argument that St. Paul taught women to be submissive. and therefore women were not equal and should not be all0wed to vote. Livermore refuted this argument by pointing out the immediate context of St. Paul‘s command for a woman to be submissive. She remarked that “the wife is to be a companion and equal" and argued that St. Paul’s texts bore no reference to a woman's right to vote. Clearly. Liverrnore's argument that women’s spiritual participation in the church was meant to include women's participation in the political process was left an unfinished enthyrnerne until her concluding remarks. Then, she argued that: Christianity has done everything for women...yet she has not the rights and privileges... Amendable to the laws yet she can have no voice in making them... The best colleges...are closed against her... She has never had a fair chance. Thus, in the concluding moments of her sermon. Livermore was able to expand her strategy to lift a larger constraint on women’s lives than participating in spiritual rectitude. The obvious conclusion was that women should participate in the public sphere on an equal basis with men. Visiny Enacting the Theological Perspective Advocated Part of Livcrmore’s success in preaching resides in her ability to portray the viability of the theological perspective she advocated. Livermore's personal life was a mirror of the Biblical principles she preached. Many people argued that Livermore had the “virtues of neighborliness. good citizenship and charity" as well as being a strong-faithed woman (Mary A. Livermore Collection). Privately and publically. Livermore was recognized as ;——__ LIVERMORE'S RELIGIOUS RHETORIC 69 an excellent wife, mother and grandmother and her relationship with her own husband, Daniel (3 Universalist Minister), was a loving union between equals (Howe, 1982. Willard. 1883). These well known qualities underscored her ethos. Livermore's benevolence was well known and prompted some to refer to her as the “prima donna of benevolence" (Woloch, 1984, p. 2222). Her talents were well recognized by many of the audiences she addressed. Logan (1912) argued that Livermore was always there “to lend a helping hand to the weak and struggling, to strike a blow for right against wrong, to prophesy a better future...and to insist on a woman’s right to help“ (p. 326). Elizabeth Phelps (1884) observed the “trust” that Livermore inspired and Bolton (1886) argued that Livermore was “a brilliant illustration of the work women may do in the world and still retain the truest womanliness"(P. 66). Thus, Livermore was, in one sense, her own evidence of what a God-abiding and loving woman could do for her church and her society. Implications for Feminist Biblical Challenges We believe this case study of 19th century religious rhetoric demonstrates how Livermore‘s rhetorical strategies were accepted into the dominate Biblical discourse of her time. In an era where most Americans feared woman’s suffrage would dismantle society, Livermore used the ultimate authority—the Bible—to embrace her audience '5 understanding of women's rightful place in religion and her community. Even though she advocated some fairly radical Biblical interpretations, she diffused opposition through carefully constructing arguments which did not undercut the value of scriptural texts. We argue that she was successful because of her Biblical knowledge. her well structured claims, her precise wording and her clear style of argumentation. Today's feminist Biblical scholars suggest that part of the task of feminist hermeneutics is to “make contact with our sisters of past ages," recapturing their interpretations and ensuring that they “will not again be erased from the collective memory of the communities of Biblical faith“ (Ruether. 1985. p. 124). Livermore‘s sermon. “The spiritual argument for woman suffrage," provides one such recovered work that serves as a successful rhetorical model for today's feminist Biblical scholars. Overall, we conclude that Livermore provides a rare model of successful rhetoric that employs not only a firm Biblical knowledge, a strong faith in God and an absolute acknowledgment of the authority of the scriptures, but helped audiences accept an alternative interpretation of the Bible. Clearly, Livermore was able to expand her audience‘s understanding of Biblical texts and persuade them that her interpretation warranted consideration. Her ability to "command respect” earned her “tolerant acceptance. if not outright praise” (Noun, 1969, p. 163) and deserves recognition today in the battle over the spiritual emancipation of women. Barbara Mae Gayle is an Associate Professor and Bohn D. Lattin is an Assistant Professor at the University ofPortiand. This project was partiallyfunded by a grant from the University of Portland. The authors would like to thank Dr. Ray Preiss for his help in obtaining various manuscripts. An earlier version of this paper was presented at the Religious Communication Association meeting in San Diego, 1996. 70 THE JOURNAL OF COMMUNICATION AND RELIGION REFERENCES Bolton, S. K. (1886). Lives ofgiris who became famous. New York: Thomas Y. Crowell and Co. Clark. E. B. (1989). The politics of God and the woman's vote: Religion in the American Sufrage Movement. 1848—1895. Unpublished dissertation Andrews University. Coleman, R. G. (1973). Suffrage and prohibition: Integrated issues. In DeWitte Holland's (Ed). Controversy history in American public address (pp. 261-279). Dubuque. IA: Wm. C. Brown. Hanaford. P. A. (1883). Daughters ofArneri‘ca. Augusta, ME: True and Company. Hanson. E. (1882). Woman workers: Universalist Church for literacy, philanthropic. and Christian work. Chicago: The Start Covenant House. Harkness. G. (1972). Women in Church and Society: A historical and theological inquiry. Nashville, TN: Abingdon Press. Howe, C. A. (1982). Daniel and Mary Livermore: The biography of a maniage. Proceedings of the Unitarian. Universalist Historical Society 1982-83. 19, 14-35. Latt. D. J. (1979). Women 's speaking justified. Los Angeles: William Andrew Clark Memorial Library. Livennore. M. A. (1892). Twenty-five years on the lecture platform. The Arena, 33. 261-271. Livermore. M. L. (1898). The Story ofmy Life. Hartford. CN: A. D. Worthington. Livermore, M. A. (n. d.) Woman Suffrage Scriptural Arguments. Princeton University Library Collection. Mary A. Livermore Collection, Melrose Public Library, Melrose, MA. Logan. M. S. (1912). The part taken by women in American history. New York: Arno Press Noun. L. R. (1969). Strong Minded Women: The emergence of the womn-sufl'rage movement in Iowa. lowa: The Iowa State University Press. Phelps. E. S. (1884). Mary A. Livermore, Our famous Women, Hartford, CN: A. D. Worthington. Ruether. R. R. (1985). Feminist interpretation: A method of correlation. In Letty E. Russel‘s (Ed). Feminist inrerpreration of the Bible (pp. 111-124). Philadelphia: Westminster Press. Sinclair. A. (1965). The emancipation of the American woman. New York: Harper & Row. Thayer. W. M. (1896). Women who win: Making things happen. New York: Thomas Nelson and Sons. Willard. F. (1883). Women and temperance: The work and workers The Women’s Christian Temperance Union. Hartford. CN: Park Publishing Co. Woloch. N. (1984). Women and the American experience. New York: Alfred A. Knopf. NOTES 1. Dr. Adam Clarke‘s “Commentary on the Bible" was among the most widely simulated in America. Copyright of Journal of Communication & Religion is the property of Religious Speech Communication Association and its content may not be copied or emailed to multiple sites or posted to a listsenr without the copyright holder's express written permission. However, users may print, download, or email articles for individual use. ...
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