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BrainboundExtended - loops that connect internal...

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Unformatted text preview: 11/1/11 loops that connect internal resources to external resources Brainbound or Extended Which is a more produc7ve way to think about cogni7on Keep an eye on func7onal systems •  What func7onality (ability) was provided by the loop into the world that was not provided by the processes in the head alone? (StM:xxv) •  func7onal systems SOMETIMES span internal resources and external resources. •  It is not claimed that this is always the case. •  Only some7mes. •  But if so, how oTen? How could we find out? Embodiment contrasts with PSSH •  “The contemporary no7on of embodied cogni7on stands in contrast to the to the prevailing cogni7vist stance which sees the mind as a device to manipulate symbols and is thus concerned with the formal rules and processes by which the symbols appropriately represent the world.” (Thelen, 2000) •  Perceive, think, act, …perceive, think, act…? •  Perceive while ac7ng, act while perceiving? •  Percep7on is not something that happens to us, it is something we DO. (Noe, 2003) •  Perceptual ac7on and ac7ve percep7on ARE forms of thinking. •  Interac7on with the world can be a form of thought. Embodiment •  “From this point of view, cogni7on depends on the kinds of experiences that come from having a body with par7cular perceptual and motor capaci7es that are inseparably linked and that together form the matrix within which memory, emo7on, language and all other aspects of life are meshed.” (Thelen, 2000) The Supersized Mind •  “Mind, therefore, is not incidentally but in)mately embodied and in)mately embedded in its world.” (Haugeland, 1998:236 ­7) 1 11/1/11 Contras7ng approaches •  BRAINBOUND •  mind is internal •  mind is neural •  body is input/output •  world is problem space •  EXTENDED •  mind is in brain ­body ­ world loops •  mind is neural PLUS •  percep7on and ac7on are forms of thinking •  the world can be part of the cogni7ve system Is it weird to let mind leak out of the brain into the body and world? •  Is it weirder than thinking that the mind is in the brain? •  We are s7ll materialists •  We are just following the informa7on (where it goes when, and in what form) •  And the informa7on that explains cogni7ve processes does not stay in the head. Promiscuous criss ­crossing •  “the actual local opera7ons that realize certain forms of human cognizing include inextricable tangles of feedback, feed ­forward, and feed ­around loops: loops that promiscuously criss ­cross the boundaries of brain, body and world.” StM xvii •  Cogni7on leaks out into the body and world. Implica7ons of the extended view •  “Environmental engineering is also self ­ engineering.” •  This is a BIG deal. •  “In building our physical and social worlds, we build (or rather, we massively reconfigure) our minds and our capaci7es of thought and reason.” StM xxviii Thought Experiment: Tetris The Extended Mind Appendix to StM •  Three forms of interac7on 1.  Mental rota7on of internal image 2.  Keyboard command rota7on of external image 3.  Brain implant command rota7on of external image Epistemic ac-ons alter the world so as to aid and augment cogni7ve processes such as recogni7on, and search. 2 11/1/11 Parity principle Ac7ve Externalism •  If some part of the world func7ons as a process which, were it done in the head, we would say it is part of a cogni7ve process, then it is part of the cogni7ve process. •  Not the passive externalism of the Twin ­Earth thought experiment (Putnam, Burge) Let’s try some examples More than parity? •  Addi7on and subtrac7on with an abacus •  Mul7plica7on and division with a slide rule •  Ac7on in the world is a form of thought •  In some cases the loops into the world enact cogni7ve processes that were they to happen in the head they would be called cogni7ve, but that CANNOT in fact be done in the head. •  You cannot form a mental representa7on of a slide rule that is accurate or stable enough to do real computa7on by imagining using the sliderule •  This highlights the power of representa7ons •  The affordances of material representa7on differ from the affordances of mental representa7on On what basis could we argue for Brainbound or against Extended? •  Consciousness? •  Portability of the core process? –  Core cogni7on works even when you do not have charts or sliderules handy. •  But consider the role of language in human experience. It is reliably present nearly everywhere. •  If this is true, then [for humans at least] extended cogni7on is a core cogni7ve process, not an add ­ on extra. From Cogni7on to Mind. •  •  •  •  No doubt cogni7on is extended. How about mind? And ul7mately self? Are mind and self extended too? 3 11/1/11 Inga and Olo •  INGA •  retrieves from memory the fact that MOMA is on 53rd St. •  OTTO •  retrieves from notebook the fact that MOMA is on 53rd St. •  Twin earth •  Occurrent and non ­occurrent beliefs •  Perceptual media7on. •  Func7onal system organiza7on Edwina and Edwin •  EDWINA •  EDWIN •  Does mul7plica7on and •  Does mul7plica7on and division in her head division using a using the Trachtenberg sliderule. method of speed arithme7c. 4 ...
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