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Embodiment2CogExtension - The a9ribu2on problem From...

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Unformatted text preview: 11/3/11 The a9ribu2on problem From Embodiment to Cogni2ve Extension •  If mind is caused by something inside of us, what exactly is it that one must assume is IN THERE in order to account for the organized behavior one can observe? •  Valen2no Braitenberg Vehicles: Experiments in Synthe3c Psychology, MIT Press 1984. –  A robot that loves light Braitenberg’s Vehicle 2 Vehicle #2 Love ­light state space LeV eye intensity Max Loves Light Hates Light 0 Right eye intensity Cricket Phonotaxis The importance of sensor placement Three tasks: Tune, locate, locomote No representa2ons No computa2ons Max Key features of the dynamical systems approach 1.  The discovery of powerful but low ­dimensional descrip2ons of systemic unfolding. 2.  The provision of intui2ve, geometric images of the state space of the system. 3.  Isola2ng control parameters and collec-ve variables. 4.  Using the technical no2on of coupling to model and track processes involving con2nuous reciprocal causality among the mul2ple subsystems. (Wa9 governor, e.g.) A dynamic state space a lot like Vehicle #2 1 11/3/11 The ac2ve body Passive ­Dynamic Walker •  The computa2on that gets done in interac2on of brain body and world, does not have to be done by the brain alone –  Decentralized mindset. –  A new place to look for the origins of organiza2on. •  Walking taking advantage of the dynamics of the body. Thelen & Smith; •  Inhabit rather than control the body Ac2ve Sensing Block Copying •  “Percep2on is not something that happens to us, it is something we do.” (Noe, 2004) •  And we only sense when needed. •  Deixis, binding objects in the world to conceptual en22es. –  Because we must establish and maintain connec2on, coupling between brain, body and world. •  Sensing for coupling – catch a fly ball. •  Taking advantage of the structure of mul2modal signals. Block Copying Block Copying 2 2 1 1 2 11/3/11 Block Copying Block Copying 4 3 3 4 Block Copying What the behavior tells us •  fixa2on marks the loca2on at which useful informa2on can be acquired. •  fixa2on can be seen as binding the value of the variable currently relevant for the task. •  (Ballard, et al., 1997,734; in Clark, 2008, 12) •  The fixa2ons are “deic2c pointers.” –  deic2c = dependent on context –  pointer = memory reference (computer science) •  Trading off 5 5 Ac2ve Sensing •  “Percep2on is not something that happens to us, it is something we do.” (Noe, 2004) •  And we only sense when needed. •  Deixis, binding objects in the world to conceptual en22es. –  Because we must establish and maintain connec2on, coupling between brain, body and world. –  store informa2on content in internal memory –  store a pointer to the loca2on of content in the world What is the brain doing? •  The brain is revealed not as an engine of reason or quiet delibera2on, but as an organ of environmentally situated control. (Mindware: 95) •  Taking advantage of the structure of mul2modal signals. •  Ac2on recruits cogni2ve resources. Informa2on self ­structuring. 3 11/3/11 What sort of explana2on do we want? •  Percep2on – computa2on – ac2on loop? •  Well, what needs to be explained? •  The answer to that depends on where we place the boundaries of the unit of analysis. –  Boundary at skin of the creature  ­> explain behavior in terms of brain processes –  Boundary around creature/environment dynamical system  ­> explain powerful regulari2es in the behavior of the complex dynamical system composed of brain, body and world. (Finger waggling, Infant stepping, e.g.) Principle of Ecological Assembly (PEA) •  the canny cognizer tends to recruit, on the spot, whatever mix of problem ­solving resources will yield an acceptable result, with minimum of effort. (Clark, 2008, 13) Social Postural Coordina2on Principle of Ecological Balance •  give a certain task environment there has to be a match between the complexi2es of the agent’s sensory, motor, and neural systems… •  second, that there is a certain balance or task distribu2on between morphology, materials, control, and environment. •  (Pfeifer and Bongard, 2007) Dynamical Cogni2ve Science •  Body and world (and hence 2me, movement, etc.) all ma9er and can play powerful roles in adap2ve problem solving. •  Neural, bodily, and environmental elements are in2mately intermingled in con2nuous mutual and reciprocal causality. •  The tradi2onal “input – compute – act” cycle cannot explain such systems. Inter ­ and Intra ­personal coordina2on 4 11/3/11 Social Postural Coordina2on Findings •  Visually paired par2cipants exhibited spontaneous coordina2on between the movements of their head, hip, and ankle. •  The visual coupling modified the spontaneous intrapersonal ankle ­hip coordina2on dynamics of par2cipants and their performance during visual tracking. •  Our findings demonstrated reciprocal rela2ons between intrapersonal and interpersonal coordina2on during social interac2on. Stelarc The nego2able body •  The boundaries of bodies are not as clear cut as we thought. •  An implicit syllogism –  The body plays an important role in cogni2on –  The boundaries of the body are nego2able –  Therefore, (maybe) the boundaries of cogni2on are also nego2able Three grades of embodiment 1.  Mere embodiment: body as control problem 2.  Basic embodiment: exploit the dynamics of the body 3.  Profound embodiment –  “…constantly search for opportuni2es to make the most of body and world, checking for what is available, and then (at various 2mescales and with varying degrees of difficulty) integra2ng new resources very deeply, crea2ng whole new agent ­world circuits in the process” StM p.42 Cogni2ve Incrementalism: the BIG issue •  What in general is the rela2on between the strategies used to solve basic problems of percep2on and ac2on and those used to solve more abstract or higher level problems? •  Are the neural mechanisms of higher thought fully con2nuous with mechanisms of on ­line ac2on control? •  Or, are other sorts of processes needed? 5 ...
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