EnactedRepresentation - 11/15/11 We are visual...

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Unformatted text preview: 11/15/11 We are visual creatures, but… •  Consider how touch works Enacted Representa0ons How we make our experience by ac0ng in the world –  ac0ve explora0on produces a sense of shapes and posi0ons that is not created by sta0c contact •  Could it be the case that vision really works like that too? •  “Percep0on is not something that happens to us or in us, it is something we do.” Enacted percep0on •  “What we perceive is determined by what we do (or what we know how to do); it is determined by what we are ready to do… we enact our perceptual experience: we act it out.” Noe 2004 Three virtues of the Strong Sensorimotor Model (SSM) 1.  Emphasis on skills rather than qualia as determinants of the content of percep0on. 1.  Tac0le Visual Subs0tu0on System 2.  The fit with predic0ve learning 1.  motor an0cipa0on 3.  Simultaneously do jus0ce to “the idea of an objec0ve mind ­independent reality and to the sense in which the world as perceived is the world of a specific type of embodied agent.” p.176) •  “Different sense modali0es also display different ac0on ­to ­s0mula0on signatures.” (p. 171) •  “Percep0on is an ac0vity that requires the exercise of knowledge of the ways ac0on affects sensory s0mula0on.” (Noe, 2007) Sensorimotor (Hyper)sensi0vity •  SSM is 0ed too 0ghtly to the specifics of our senses. •  Many (enacted) representa0ons “are geared, tweaked, nuanced to inform reason, selec0on, comparison, and choice. They thus reflect only the broad outlines of possible kinds of sensorimotor enagements.” (p. 191) 1.  Different bodies imply different perceptual experience 1 11/15/11 •  “… conscious perceptual experience reflects the ac0va0on of representa0ons that have less to do with the fine details of world ­ engaging sensorimotor loops and more to do with the need to assign inputs to categories, types and rela0ve loca0ons so as be`er to sia sort, select, iden0fy, compare, recall, imagine, and reason.” (p. 192) •  “We have seen that the own ­world of animals is cons0tu0vely shaped by the par0culari0es of their means of structural coupling. It is the same for human beings with the enormous difference that the means of structural coupling of humans includes their technical inven0ons” (Havelange V., Lenay C. & Stewart J. (2003). Les •  “… the perceptual experience of differently embodied animals could, in principle, be iden0cal, not merely similar, to our own.” but similarly enculturated! Pause and Breathe représenta0ons: mémoire externe et objets techniques. Intellec3ca 35, 115 ­131. ) A lot remains to be learned about Enacted Representa0ons •  Addi0onal inves0ga0ons –  more ethnography –  developmental processes –  behavioral experiments –  eye tracking –  computa0onal modeling –  brain imaging –  philosophical implica0ons Surrogate Situa0ons External representa0ons 2 11/15/11 Surrogate situa0on defined •  Any kind of real ­world structure that is used to stand in for or take the place of an aspect of some target situa0on (pg. 154). •  E.g. Architect’s plan, navigator’s chart, your calendar … •  Abstrac0ons can be created here –  (gekng distance between the representa0on and thing that is represented) •  Surrogate situa0ons are pervasive, various, and important –  (A clear call for more cogni0ve ethnography) Emulator Circuits + Surrogate Situa0ons = abstract thought •  Suppose we engage a surrogate situa0on using emulator circuits. •  Now we can reason about things that are abstract and absent. •  “The model is it’s own best world” •  “Surrogate situa0ons allow us to build environmentally extended emulator circuits.” (pg 156) Conceptual Match to Sample: symbol media0on grounded in enacted representa0on Presenta0on window Touch ­sensi0ve Computer screen Place value mul0plica0on •  “Each cycle of this opera0on involves first crea0ng a representa0on through manipula0on of the environment, then a processing of the (actual physical) representa0on by means of our well ­tuned perceptual apparatus leading to further modifica0on of this representa0on. By doing this we reduce a very abstract conceptual problem to a series of opera0ons that are very concrete and at which we can become very good…This is real symbol processing and, we are beginning to think, the primary symbol processing that we are able to do.” (Rumelhart, et al., 1986). Conceptual Match to Sample: symbol media0on grounded in enacted representa0on Presenta0on window Touch ­sensi0ve Computer screen Conceptual Match to Sample: enacted representa0on Presenta0on window Touch ­sensi0ve Computer screen 3 11/15/11 Conceptual Match to Sample: enacted representa0on Are special neural resources needed to process symbols? Presenta0on window Touch ­sensi0ve Computer screen Processing Self ­generated informa0on •  Rastrolateral prefrontal cortex (RLPFC) is implicated in evalua0ng self ­generated informa0on. –  possible moves in a game –  processing sub ­goals in problem solving –  prospec0ve memory – remembering to do something aaer a delay Could this explain rela0onal match ­to ­ sample? •  “the ability to become aware of and explicitly process internal mental states – cogni0ve as well as emo0onal – may epitomize human mental abili0es and may contribute to the enhanced complexity of thought, ac0on, and social interac0on observed in humans” •  (Christoff et al 2003: 1166; StM: 148) Clark’s hypothesis •  “…there are specific neural innova0ons that make it possible for some creatures, but not others, to benefit deeply from the ability to associate concrete tokens with abstract rela0ons. •  To use that ability to leverage further abili0es (e.g., thinking about higher ­order rela0ons) requires capaci0es (e.g., those involved in the evalua0on of internally generated informa0on) that the external scaffolding alone does not provide.” (StM 148) 4 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/11/2011 for the course COGS 102a taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at UCSD.

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