SODC-basics

SODC-basics - Computational Architecture The Social...

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1 The Social Organization of Distributed Cognition How social arrangements affect the cognitive properties of groups (which can be different from the cognitive properties of the individuals in the group). Computational Architecture • Computational architecture describes how the pieces of a computational system are connected. • What information goes where, when, in what form? • What are the pieces? – Central processor – Memory stores – Input, output, buffers, etc. • How can information move? – Processor retrieves an operation from program memory, data from another memory, and writes a result back into the data memory. A foundational metaphor • Computer – metal, silicon – hardware – software – programming – Data – memory • RAM • Disk – Formal Systems • Mind/Brain – meat, – nervous tissue – mindware – learning – knowledge – memory • short term • long term – Formal Systems Functional equivalence, not identity Symbol system states Brain states Symbol system States Two Physical Symbol Systems? • Computer – metal, silicon – hardware – software – programming – Data – memory • RAM • Disk – Formal Systems • Mind/Brain – meat – nervous system tissue – mindware – learning – knowledge – memory • episodic • semantic – Formal Systems Two Physical Symbol Systems? • Computer – metal, silicon – hardware – software – programming – Data – memory • RAM • Disk – Formal Systems • Navigation department – meat, metal, paper – people and stuff – procedures – learning (3 timescales) – measurements – memory • notes, marks, words • charts, documents – Formal Systems Social organization as computational architecture • Social organizations take the form they do for many reasons • No matter what form a social organization takes, it will have cognitive consequences. • Because social organization determines what jobs get done, where, by whom. • It shapes what information goes where, when, and in what form.
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2 Distribution of cognitive labor • Distribution of knowledge – Specialization of knowledge. • Coordinating the distributed parts, interactions among specialists • Producing and reproducing expertise Society as a distributed memory (Roberts, 1964) • Native American groups have different kinds of social organization, and these give rise to different memory properties. • Factors that affect memory retrieval – Group size – Distribution of knowledge among individuals – Patterns of interaction among individuals – Changes in patterns of interaction through time Coordinating the distributed parts There are many ways to do this, social organization of distributed cognition Stigmergy: reacting to structure left by others, (e.g., ants) Aggregation: voting schemes, juries, markets, Wisdom of crowds. Society of agent specialists, distribution of knowledge and
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SODC-basics - Computational Architecture The Social...

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