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thinking-meat - The attribution problem in Cognitive...

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10/4/11 1 The attribution problem in Cognitive Science We can’t see the processes we care the most about, so we must infer them from observable behavior. But how can we infer the invisible? Well, …what is visible? Reason-respecting behavior. How can we account for that? Reason respecting behavior Info processing psychology – knowledge, goals, plans, means Language (formal linguistics) Theorem proving Chess and other games Newell’s BIG News THE central questions in cognitive science are these: – How can the phenomena of mind exist in the physical world? – How can the physical phenomena of mind be explained? Now, after 2000 years of asking, we know the answers! Physical Symbol Systems Formal Systems We know of another system that produces reason- respecting sequences. It’s LOGIC FORMal, get it? Strings of symbols Rules for manipulating strings of symbols “If you take care of the syntax, the semantics will take care of itself.” (Haugeland, 1981) The classical view of computing and cognition (PSSH) Symbols and expressions (designation and interpretation) Meanings are composed of meaning elements Formal operations transform expressions Three distinct levels – knowledge/computational (what does it do?) – symbol/representational (how is the doing organized?) – biology/implementation (what stuff does it?)
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10/4/11 2 Formal Systems have a history Early Accounting Systems Six ovoid tokens representing an account of six units of oil Early Accounting Systems Plain tokens. Mesopotamia, 4000 B.C. Early Accounting Systems An envelope and its contents representing 7 units of oil Early Accounting Systems An envelope, its contents of tokens, and corresponding markings. 3300 B.C. Early Accounting Systems Complex tokens. Sheep, oil, metal, garment. 3300 B.C.
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10/4/11 3 Early Accounting Systems Impressed tablet showing an account of grain. 3100 B.C. Early Accounting Systems Pictographic tablet showing 33 units of oil. 3100 B.C. Properties of Spoken and Written Language • Spoken – Ephemeral – Dynamic Auditory (sound) Structure in time • Written – Semi-permanent – Static Visual (sight) Structure in space decontextualization weave or surrounds with relation to not to make or take the act de con text ual iza tion The Secret of Our Success The world of things and events Representations of the world of things and events Encoding Formal operations New representations of the world Decoding The Secret of Our Success The world of things and events t = 0 x = 0 Encoding a = g = 9.8m/sec 2 v = gt x = 1/2gt 2 t = 10 sec. x = 1/2 g 100 = 50g meters Decoding Falling object Falls 490m in 10 seconds
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10/4/11 4 Getting symbols to behave in a way that fits the world Why does this turn out to be possible?
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  • Fall '08
  • staff
  • Formal system, Formal language, Philosophy of artificial intelligence, Newell, Physical symbol system, Early Accounting Systems00

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