ThreePuzzlesPractices

- Plan Three Puzzles and a proposed common solu5on •  Present three puzzling results in cogni5ve science •  Present the

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Unformatted text preview: 11/8/11 Plan Three Puzzles and a proposed common solu5on •  Present three puzzling results in cogni5ve science •  Present the explana5ons offered by the authors of the first two. •  Present an alterna5ve explana5on of the first two puzzles that unifies them. •  Use the unified explana5on of the first two to explain the third puzzle. Puzzle 1 1.27 1.27 1.00 1.14 1.00 1.15 American Anthropologist, 86, 1984. Does language structure thought? Green Blue Rela5ve distances propor5onal to the discrimina5on distance ( jnd, established for English speakers) Triads Judgment Judged (Dis ­)Similarity (triads) Which of these colors is most different from the other two? 1 11/8/11 Judged Rela5ve Distance (pairs) Which is bigger: the difference in greenness between the two chips on the leY or the difference in blueness between the two chips on the right? Puzzle 2 What’s up with that? The pre ­upgraded chimp mind Chimps learn interac5ons •  Infant chimpanzees perceive similari5es and differences between exemplars of iden5ty and non ­iden5ty rela5onships, but they cannot use that ability to judge the equivalence of such rela5onships in a conceptual matching task. Presenta5on window Touch ­sensi5ve Computer screen 2 11/8/11 Conceptual Match to Sample Presenta5on window Touch ­sensi5ve Computer screen Conceptual Match to Sample Presenta5on window Touch ­sensi5ve Computer screen What’s up with that? The Flynn Effect What’s up with that? 3 11/8/11 Judged (Dis ­)Similarity (triads) First draY solu5ons Judged Rela5ve Distance (pairs) The “name strategy” •  “It’s hard to decide here which one looks the most different. Are there any other kinds of clues I might use? Aha! A and B are both CALLED green while C is CALLED blue. That solves my problem; I’ll pick C as most different.” A B C When will the “name strategy be used?” •  “The name strategy seems to demand two facilita5ng condi5ons: (1) it must not be blocked by the context, as in experiment 2; (2) the original judgment must be in some sense hard to make.” (K&K, p 77) Upgrading the Chimpanzee Mind Based on Thompson, Oden and Boysen 1997 “Language naïve chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) judge rela5ons between rela5ons in conceptual match ­to ­sample task.” 4 11/8/11 The pre ­upgraded chimp mind Embodied interac5on with pairs •  Infant chimpanzees perceive similari5es and differences between exemplars of iden5ty and non ­iden5ty rela5onships, but they cannot use that ability to judge the equivalence of such rela5onships in a conceptual matching task. Chimps learn interac5ons Presenta5on window Touch ­sensi5ve Computer screen Physical Match to Sample Presenta5on window Touch ­sensi5ve Computer screen Physical Match to Sample Presenta5on window Touch ­sensi5ve Computer screen Condi5onal Discrimina5on Presenta5on window Touch ­sensi5ve Computer screen 5 11/8/11 Condi5onal Discrimina5on Presenta5on window Touch ­sensi5ve Computer screen Conceptual Match to Sample Presenta5on window Touch ­sensi5ve Computer screen Physical Match to Sample Presenta5on window Coding Rela5ons Touch ­sensi5ve Computer screen Conceptual Match to Sample Presenta5on window Touch ­sensi5ve Computer screen Physical Match to Sample Presenta5on window Touch ­sensi5ve Computer screen 6 11/8/11 Conceptual Match to Sample Presenta5on window Touch ­sensi5ve Computer screen Conceptual Match to Sample Presenta5on window Touch ­sensi5ve Computer screen Labeling first ­order rela5ons And the chimps that had condi5onal discrimina5on training can perform conceptual match ­to ­sample on the very first trial Why? How? Labeling first ­order rela5ons •  First, the chimpanzee detects the within ­pair rela5on instan5ated, for example, by an AA (iden5ty) or a CD (noniden5ty) sample. •  This evokes an internal iconic representa5on of the concrete token (e.g., "heart" or "diagonal") that symbolically codes iden5ty and noniden5ty, as learned previously in an unrelated task. •  First, the chimpanzee detects the within ­pair rela5on instan5ated, for example, by an AA (iden5ty) or a CD (noniden5ty) sample. •  This evokes an internal iconic representa5on of the concrete token (e.g., "heart" or "diagonal") that symbolically codes iden5ty and noniden5ty, as learned previously in an unrelated task. Labeling second ­order rela5ons •  “Likewise, these icons symbolizing the rela5ons iden5ty and noniden5ty, respec5vely, will be evoked when the chimpanzee next detects the within ­pair rela5ons instan5ated by the BB and EF alterna5ves presented on the computer monitor. •  The chimpanzee can now covertly match these representa5onal icons (e.g., heart and diagonal) against the symbolic representa5on of heart or diagonal evoked by the sample.” 7 11/8/11 Coding Rela5ons Conceptual Match to Sample: symbolic media5on Presenta5on window Conceptual Match to Sample: symbolic media5on Presenta5on window Touch ­sensi5ve Computer screen Enacted Representa5ons of Rela5ons Touch ­sensi5ve Computer screen Labeling first ­order rela5ons •  First, the chimpanzee detects the within ­pair rela5on instan5ated, for example, by an AA (iden5ty) or a CD (noniden5ty) sample. •  This evokes an internal iconic representa5on of the concrete token (e.g., "heart" or "diagonal") that symbolically codes iden5ty and noniden5ty, as learned previously in an unrelated task. Physical Match to Sample Presenta5on window Touch ­sensi5ve Computer screen 8 11/8/11 Physical Match to Sample Presenta5on window Touch ­sensi5ve Computer screen Conceptual Match to Sample: symbol media5on grounded in enacted representa5on Presenta5on window Touch ­sensi5ve Computer screen Conceptual Match to Sample: enacted representa5on Presenta5on window Touch ­sensi5ve Computer screen Conceptual Match to Sample: symbol media5on grounded in enacted representa5on Presenta5on window Touch ­sensi5ve Computer screen Conceptual Match to Sample: enacted representa5on Presenta5on window Touch ­sensi5ve Computer screen Condi5onal discrimina5on task •  Bring the prac5ce of discrimina5on of iden5ty/non ­iden5ty under control by making it part of the social interac5ons with the humans. Learn to par9cipate in new cultural prac9ces •  •  Choose one token for iden5cal pairs and a different token for non ­iden5cal pairs. Code rela/ons using symbol ­like tokens 9 11/8/11 Why it is relevant here. •  A qualita5ve change of just the sort that is presumed to underlie the shiY from pre ­ symbolic to symbolic reasoning could occur in a nonhuman primate as a consequence of a change in a cultural prac5ce. Upgrading nonhuman primate minds via cultural prac5ces •  Either explana5on of the upgrade process implies the orchestra5on of interac5ons of brain and body with the culturally organized social and/or material environment. •  The “upgraded” processes are a property of the interac5on system: brain, body, culturally organized world. The “name strategy” A B C Second DraY Solu5ons Non ­symbol mediated Conceptual match ­to ­sample •  In the rewarded condi5onal discrimina5on task, the chimp learns a way of seeing pairs of objects in the window (a habitual skill) that gives rise to one kind of experience for “same” rela5ons, and a no5ceably different kind of experience for “different” rela5ons. •  This skill subserves the dis5nc5ons required by the language of heart and diagonal tokens. •  This skill becomes a resource that can be used in the conceptual match ­to ­sample ac5vity. •  “It’s hard to decide here which one looks the most different. Are there any other kinds of clues I might use? Aha! A and B are both CALLED green while C is CALLED blue. That solves my problem; I’ll pick C as most different.” •  The skills that subserve the dis5nc5ons required by the language (between green and blue for English speakers) can be used for other cogni5ve performances, choosing the color that is most different, for example. Empirical ques5ons •  Under what condi5ons will the skills that were learned to subserve the dis5nc5ons required by the language (Slobin, thinking for speaking; Chimps doing the condi5onal discrimina5on task) affect other cogni5ve performances? •  Under what condi5ons will the cultural prac5ces of seeing the world in par5cular ways, whether subserving language or not, be recruited as media5ng resources in a task performance? 10 11/8/11 A research program? The natural material world •  What processes control the recruitment of resources (assembly process) into cogni5ve func5onal systems? –  The Vygotskian approach implies this ques5on –  Andy Clark makes this ques5on a central theme in his recent book Supersizing the Mind Seeing stars as constella5ons Seeing a queue Order of arriv al = order of service Moving a par55on through a set Imagining the cultural prac5ces of mathema5cal cogni5on 11 11/8/11 A sequence of number names ‘one’, ‘two’, ‘three’, ….. Coun5ng one two three Paper and Pencil Solu5on A common naviga5on problem A ship travels 1500 yards in three minutes. What is the speed of the ship in nau5cal miles per hour? Paper and Pencil Solu5on Calculator Solu5on 12 11/8/11 3 ­scale nomogram Using the Three Minute Rule Spanning a distance Reading a distance or a speed Func5onal Systems •  Each method implies a different func5onal system. •  Each func5onal system uses a different arrangement of representa5onal structures and a different set of cogni5ve processes. Perceptual Prac5ces of Algebra 13 11/8/11 The Flynn Effect Wouldn’t it be great if we had a way to measure change across cultural history in the repertoire of cogni5ve func5onal systems in a popula5on? Cogni5ve ecosystems: micro view Cogni5ve Ecosystems: Macro view •  Human brains adapt to the cultural prac5ces in which they par5cipate… •  by developing func5onal skills that support that par5cipa5on. •  This results in each person having a collec5on of func5onal skills that subserve par5cipa5on in the cultural prac5ces of their community. Language skills are the most obvious example. •  These func5onal skills may subsequently be recruited by ac5vi5es other than the ones in which they originally developed. •  Each community of persons can be characterized by a distribu5on of func5onal skills across the members of the community. •  Some func5onal skills are widely shared. Others appear only in specialists (people who have engaged in a special set of prac5ces). •  As the prac5ces of a community change through 5me, the distribu5on of func5onal skills in the members of the community will also change. 14 ...
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This note was uploaded on 12/11/2011 for the course COGS 102a taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '08 term at UCSD.

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