F11Physics1CLec29B

F11Physics1CLec29B - Physics 1C Lecture 29B "Nuclear...

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Physics 1C Lecture 29B "Nuclear powered vacuum cleaners will probably be a reality within 10 years. " --Alex Lewyt, 1955
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Problems with Bohr’s Model Bohr’s explanation of atomic spectra includes some features of the currently accepted theory. Bohr’s model includes both classical and non- classical ideas. He applied Planck’s ideas of quantized energy levels to orbiting electrons and Einstein’s concept of the photon to determine frequencies of transitions . Improved spectroscopic techniques, however, showed that many of the single spectral lines were actually groups of closely spaced lines. Single spectral lines could be split into three closely spaced lines when the atom was placed in a magnetic field.
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Quantum Numbers n is considered the principal quantum number . n can range from 1 to infinity in integer steps. But other quantum numbers were added later on to explain other subatomic effects (such as elliptical orbits; Arnold Sommerfeld (1868-1951). The orbital quantum number , , was then introduced. can range from 0 to n -1 in integer steps. Historically, all states with the same principal quantum number n are said to form a shell . Shells are identified by letters: K, L, M, … All states with given values of n and are said to form a subshell . Subshells: s, p, d, f, g, h , …
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Quantum Numbers Largest angular momentum will be associated with: = n – 1 This corresponds to a circular orbit. = 0 corresponds to spherical symmetry with no axis of rotation.
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Quantum Numbers Suppose a weak magnetic field is applied to an atom and its direction coincides with z axis. Then direction of the angular momentum vector relative to the z axis is quantized!
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F11Physics1CLec29B - Physics 1C Lecture 29B "Nuclear...

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