lecture2-phonology

lecture2-phonology - PHONOLOGICAL RULES LIGN101 INTRO TO...

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LIGN101 01.19.2010 PHONOLOGICAL RULES LIGN101 - INTRO TO THE STUDY OF LANGUAGE
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lign 101 01.19.2011 phonology Goal of phonology is to predict the distribution of sounds mapping form phonemes like /t/ to phones like [t] & [t ʰ ] understanding regularities helps us to understand relationships between sounds
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lign 101 01.19.2011 phonology: example I can see - [ ɑ ı kæn si] I can bake - [ ɑ ı kæm beık] I can come - [ ɑ ı kæ ŋ k ʌ m] I can fish - [ ɑ ı kæ ɱ ʃ ]
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lign 101 01.19.2011 phonology: example I can see - [ ɑ ı kæn si] I can bake - [ ɑ ı kæm beık] I can come - [ ɑ ı kæ ŋ k ʌ m] I can fish - [ ɑ ı kæ ɱ ʃ ] place of nasal articulation varies according to subsequent consonant
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lign 101 01.19.2011 phonology: example police - [plís] parade - [p ɹ é ɪ d] The unstressed vowel [ ə ] is missing or deleted before these 2 stressed vowels
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lign 101 01.19.2011 phonological rules Environment: the context in which a sound change takes place [n] [m]/__ labial consonant [n] [ ŋ ]/__ velar consonant [n] [ ɱ ]/__ bilabial consonant [n] [n] everywhere else ORIGINAL NEW/ X __ Y
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lign 101 01.19.2011 natural classes For the sake of efficiency & generality, rules apply to natural classes bilabials - sounds with (near) closure of lips voiced phonemes etc. Classes are categorical: a sound either does or doesn’t belong to it
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lign 101 01.19.2011 phonological rules [alveolor nasals] nasals[+Z] /__ C[+Z] C = consonant Z = place of articulation
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lign 101 01.19.2011 assimilation Rule is still to specific applies to /t/ & /d/ as well night class [n ɑ ık klæs] bad guy [bæg g ɑ i] What do /t/,/d/, & /n/ have in common? alveolar stops
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lign 101 01.19.2011 assimilation alveolar stops [+ PLACE ] / ___ C[+ PLACE ] read as “the place of an alveolar stop assimilates to the place of the following consonant”
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lign 101 01.19.2011 natural classes
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