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lec4-2x2 - CSE 130: Fall 2011 Programming Languages Ranjit...

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Unformatted text preview: CSE 130: Fall 2011 Programming Languages Ranjit Jhala UC San Diego Lecture 4: Variables and Scope News • PA 1 due tomorrow at 5pm • Lets first wrap up with data types... What about “Recursive” types ? type int_list = Nil | Cons of int * int_list Think about this! What are values of int_list ? Nil Cons(3,Nil) Cons(2,Cons(3,Nil)) Cons(1,Cons(2,Cons(3,Nil))) Nil Cons 3, Cons 2, Cons 1, Lists aren’t built-in ! Lists are a derived type: built using elegant core datatype int_list = Nil | Cons of int * int_list Lists are a derived type: built using elegant core! 1. Each-of 2. One-of 3. Recursive :: is just a pretty way to say “Cons” is just a pretty way to say “Nil” Some functions on Lists : Length let rec len l = match l with Nil-> | Cons(h,t) -> 1 + (len t) Base Expression Inductive Expression Base pattern Ind pattern let rec len l = match l with Nil-> | Cons(_,t) -> 1 + (len t) let rec len l = match l with Cons(_,t) -> 1 + (len t) | _-> Matches everything, no binding Pattern-matching in order- Must match with Nil Code Mirrors Data 6 6 Some functions on Lists : listMax let rec listMax xs = match xs with Base Expression Base pattern Nil-> | Cons(h,t) -> max h (listMax t) Inductive Expression Ind pattern Code Mirrors Data 8 6 Some functions on Lists : Append let rec append (l1,l2) = Base Expression Inductive Expression Base pattern Ind pattern • Find the right induction strategy – Base case: pattern + expression – Induction case: pattern + expression Well designed datatype gives strategy Code Mirrors Data 10 6 null, hd, tl are all functions … Bad ML style: More than aesthetics ! Pattern-matching better than test-extract: • ML checks all cases covered • ML checks no redundant cases • …at compile-time: – fewer errors (crashes) during execution – get the bugs out ASAP! Another Example: Calculator We want an arithmetic calculator to evaluate expressions like: • 4.0 + 2.9 • 3.78 – 5.92 • (4.0 + 2.9) * (3.78 5.92 = 6.9 = -2.14 = 14.766 • (4.0 + 2.9) * (3.78 -5.92) Q: Whats a ML datatype for such expressions ?...
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This note was uploaded on 12/11/2011 for the course CSE 130 taught by Professor Jhala during the Fall '06 term at UCSD.

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lec4-2x2 - CSE 130: Fall 2011 Programming Languages Ranjit...

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