6158C_Unit1 - UNIT 1 Analog Signals: The basics of...

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Page 1 Version 1.09 UNIT 1 Analog Signals: The basics of electrical quantities and their function as analog signals. Your Name Date of Submission CHEMISTRY 6158C Department of Chemistry University of Florida Gainesville, FL 32611-7200 (Note: Much of the material in this handout was rewritten/updated in 2001 by graduate student Andrew K. Ottens.)
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Page 2 Version 1.09 Instructions During the course of this semester packets such as this unit will be used to walk you through the experiments. You are responsible for reading each unit entirely, filling in all tables, and answering all questions. You will be required to hand in the unit with all tables/drawings completed, as well as a typed (or neatly hand-written) report answering all the questions from the unit. Please begin your report with your name and date of submission. Clearly annotate each of your responses with the corresponding question number found in the unit. Staple or clip the answers to the back of the unit, and hand the packet into your TA by the due date. Introduction As scientists we often want to observe and record changes in the physical properties of various systems. This can be as simple as using a thermometer to note a rise in temperature, or using a pH probe to detect the endpoint of a chemical titration. Regardless of the actual property we wish to monitor, more than ever these days we use some sort of electronic device (often computerized) to record and display the desired values. The purpose of this course is to help you understand how physical properties are transformed into electrical signals, and how we can use these signals to process and display information. Basics – The world as we know it would not be the same if we couldn’t move information electronically from point A to B. We all take advantage of electronic gadgets, from cell phones to computers, that rely on electrical signals for transporting data. But what is a signal? We can break this concept down into three classifications – analog, digital, and time-based signals. In this unit we will look at the basics of analog signals , in which the information is carried in the amplitude of the signal. We will start by covering the principles of electrical quantities – voltage, current, charge and power (refer to Table 1). Charge - As chemists we are all familiar with protons and electrons, the charge-carrying subatomic particles of matter. We quantitate charge, Q, based on discrete numbers of protons and electrons, each having a value of 1.603 x 10 -19 coulombs, but of opposite polarity. A material with mobile charges is said to be a conductor, such as a copper wire, and one with immobile charges is an insulator, such as glass. The movement and isolation of charge are described by other electrical quantities.
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Page 3 Version 1.09 Voltage The voltage or potential, V, is the isolation of charge of opposite polarity across space and/or matter. We know that opposites attract, so in order to keep opposite charges separated we need to apply energy. We quantitate this energy as voltage, or
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6158C_Unit1 - UNIT 1 Analog Signals: The basics of...

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