Chapter1Bwd

# Chapter1Bwd - P AR Organizing Data Looking for Patterns and...

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Organizing Data: Looking for Patterns and Departures from Patterns Exploring Data The Normal Distributions Examining Relationships More on Two-Variable Data 1 2 3 4 P A T R I

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2 Chapter Number and Title FLORENCE NIGHTINGALE Using Statistics to Save Lives Florence Nightingale (1820–1910) won fame as a founder of the nursing profession and as a reformer of health care. As chief nurse for the British army during the Crimean War, from 1854 to 1856, she found that lack of sanitation and disease killed large numbers of soldiers hospitalized by wounds. Her reforms reduced the death rate at her military hospital from 42.7% to 2.2%, and she returned from the war famous. She at once began a fight to reform the entire military health care system, with considerable success. One of the chief weapons Florence Nightingale used in her efforts was data. She had the facts, because she reformed record keeping as well as med- ical care. She was a pioneer in using graphs to present data in a vivid form that even generals and members of Parliament could understand. Her inventive graphs are a landmark in the growth of the new science of statistics. She con- sidered statistics essential to understanding any social issue and tried to intro- duce the study of statistics into higher education. In beginning our study of statistics, we will follow Florence Nightingale’s lead. This chapter and the next will stress the analysis of data as a path to understanding. Like her, we will start with graphs to see what data can teach us. Along with the graphs we will present numerical summaries, just as Florence Nightingale calculated detailed death rates and other summaries. Data for Florence Nightingale were not dry or abstract, because they showed her, and helped her show others, how to save lives. That remains true today. One of the chief weapons Florence Nightingale used in her efforts was data. The Granger Collection, New York
Exploring Data Introduction 1.1 Displaying Distributions with Graphs 1.2 Describing Distributions with Numbers Chapter Review c h e r a p t 1

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INTRODUCTION Statistics is the science of data. We begin our study of statistics by mastering the art of examining data. Any set of data contains information about some group of individuals. The information is organized in variables. 4 Chapter 1 Exploring Data ACTIVITY 1 How Fast Is Your Heart Beating? Materials: Clock or watch with second hand A person’s pulse rate provides information about the health of his or her heart. Would you expect to find a difference between male and female pulse rates? In this activity, you and your classmates will collect some data to try to answer this question. 1. To determine your pulse rate, hold the fingers of one hand on the artery in your neck or on the inside of the wrist. (The thumb should not be used, because there is a pulse in the thumb.) Count the number of pulse beats in one minute. Do this three times, and calculate your average individual pulse rate (add your three pulse rates and divide by 3.) Why is doing this three times better than doing it once?
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